The biosphere is the layer of the planet that is made up of the parts of the Earth where life exists . It ranges from the deepest root systems of trees, to the dark environment that we can find in the deep ocean, the wonderful tropical forests and the high peaks of the mountains. Life exists both on the ground , in the air and in the water and they are found in the biosphere. Although it measures approximately 20 kilometers, if you look at it from top to bottom, almost all life exists about 500 meters below the surface of the ocean.and about 6 kilometers above sea ​​level.  It is a space full of materials and living beings that are propelled and live by means of sunlight . It is the most extensive layer of the earth’s crust and in it there is water, air, soil and energy.


What is the biosphere?

The biosphere is the sphere of life. It is the part of our earth where we can find life that develops through the energy of the sun . All, both living simple and complex form the biosphere and is circling the globe terraqueous along with other layers.

  • Characteristics of the biosphere
  • Structure of the biosphere
  • Layers
  • Components of the biosphere
  • Features
  • Biosphere Reserve
  • Importance
  • Pollution of the biosphere and its consequences
  • Examples

Characteristics of the biosphere

Among the most outstanding characteristics of the biosphere we can mention the following:

  • The life that is found in it develops mainly in the most superficial layer of the soil.
  • It uses solar energy as the primary source of energy.
  • It works in it through ecosystems .
  • It is a thin layer of approximately 20 kilometers.
  • It has a large number of living beings and other non-living elements that are part of ecosystems.
  • It is the only layer that has the ability to preserve and maintain the life of living beings.
  • The living beings of the biosphere are capable of living up to 6 kilometers above sea level and these develop and inhabit in the heights , such as alpacas and llamas.
  • Some marine animals can live up to 7000 meters deep, such as crustaceans and eels.
  • There is an interaction between all living beings that inhabit the biosphere.

Structure of the biosphere

The structure of the biosphere has three different components that are abiotic , biotic and energetic components .

  • Abiotic components : this group consists of all non-living elements that are necessary for the proper survival of all living organisms, for example, water , oxygen and minerals , which are basic requirements of organic life.
  • Biotic components : these include plants , animals and humans to make biotic components of the environment. Within the biotic components we find three different subsystems:
    • Plants : they are a very important part of the biotic components . They are primary producers of food through the process of photosynthesis . They are also known as autotrophs .
    • Animals : the main consumers of plant products are animals, due to and are known as heterotrophs . They use organic matter produced by plants and transform food into energy .
    • Microorganisms : they have the function of acting as decomposers of dead plants and animals .
  • Energy : It is the main component of the biosphere since it is essential for the reproduction and generation of all biological life on Earth.


Its layers are as follows:

  • Geosphere : also called lithosphere and is the layer that is covering the planet. It is formed by rocks and depending on them, the soils can be organic, clayey, sandy or rocky.
  • Hydrosphere : it is the third and most extensive layer that contains all aquatic life . It can be salt water or fresh water .
  • Atmosphere : last layer and where the gases that protect living beings from radiation from the sun and meteorites are found . It is made up of oxygen , carbon dioxide, and nitrogen .

Components of the biosphere

It is basically made up of water , soil and air . These three elements are necessary for habitats to have life, like all living things that inhabit the planet. It is also composed of carbon oxides , ecological systems that include biotic and abiotic factors , ecosystems, plants and animals.


The biosphere is the part that contains life on the planet . Maintaining an adequate atmospheric balance on earth is one of its main functions, in addition to distributing life, since thanks to it we have a great diversity of plants and animals located in strategic areas for their proper functioning. It is the layer in which we find the food chains , fundamental for the survival of the different species that inhabit the planet.

Biosphere Reserve

These are areas in which we find marine or terrestrial ecosystems that have been recognized by UNESCO and that serve to adequately integrate populations and nature by promoting adequate sustainable development, and in which solutions are sought to conserve biodiversity , economic development , the research and education .


Its function is to promote the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation; It also has a development function since it seeks to improve the economic and human development in a way that is socioculturally and ecologically sustainable, and finally it plays a logistics function because it helps in research , education and the exchange of information. related to local, national and global conservation and development issues.

Pollution of the biosphere and its consequences

Some activities carried out by man affect and damage the biosphere . Disproportionate population growth , massive destruction of habitats for agriculture and urbanization, pollution , damage the environment. The consequences are serious, including the greenhouse effect that causes world temperatures to rise steadily; the ozone layer is slowly being destroyed, giving free passage to ultraviolet radiation that can damage plants, animals and humans; the acid rain that occurs when some are burnedfossils , this rain contains sulfuric acid and nitric acid, which evaporate and return to the earth as rain.


Some examples of biosphere reserves are:

  • Bliesgau Biosphere Reserve , Germany.
  • Gran Arenal Biosphere Reserve in Australia .
  • Fuerteventura Reserve in Spain .

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