Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. It is approximately 143,000 kilometers wide at its equator. It is so large that all the other planets in the solar system could fit inside it. It is like a star that is in constant composition . Jupiter is the fifth planet if we count them from the sun. Jupiter’s average distance from the sun is 5.2 astronomical units, and this distance is just over five times the distance from Earth to the sun . When viewed from Earth, usually the second planet most shining in the sky at night, immediately afterVenus . The planet is named after Jupiter, the king of the Roman gods in mythology.

  • Distance to the sun:  778.5 million kilometers
  • Gravity: 24.79 m / s²
  • Duration of the day:  9 hours and 56 minutes
  • Orbital period:  11 years 315 days and 1.1 hours

What is Jupiter?

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and it is the largest planet in the solar system and it is the planet that is closest to the sun , with a composition similar to that of the sun, it is composed of hydrogen, helium, water vapor and others compounds.


Jupiter characteristics:

  • It is known as the gas giant planet .
  • Its atmosphere is made up mostly of hydrogen and helium , just like the sun.
  • One of its main features is the Great Red Spot , which is a giant spinning storm , similar to a hurricane .
  • There is a lot of wind on Jupiter , and these can hit gusts from 192 mph to over 400 mph.
  • It has three thin rings that are difficult to see.
  • Its rotation is the fastest of all the planets in the Solar System .
  • Its  atmosphere  is complex, and has a large number of clouds and storms .
  • Their rings are made up of dust particles thrown into space when meteorites collide with their inner moons.
  • Its mass is 1.8981 x 1027 kg.
  • It has a density of approximately 1.326 g / cm3 and a volume of 1.43128 x 1015 km3.
  • Its diameter is 142,800 km.


Jupiter was the King of the Gods , the ruler of Olympus, and the patron of the Roman state . It has been known since prehistoric times as a bright wandering star . In 1610, when Galileo first pointed a telescope at the sky, he discovered the four large moons of Jupiter and recorded their movements back and forth around Jupiter. It was an important point in favor of the heliocentric theory of Copernicus on the movements of the planets . Galileo’s support for the Copernican theory put him in several trouble with theInquisition . It was first visited by  Pioneer 10 in 1973 and later by Pioneer 11,  Voyager 1, Voyager 2, and  Ulysses . The Galileo spacecraft orbited  Jupiter for eight years. It is still regularly observed by the Hubble Space Telescope.



Jupiter inside is composed mainly of hydrogen molecules in liquid form . At the bottom of the cloud layers, when the pressure inside them rises, the hydrogen that makes up Jupiter is transformed into liquid hydrogen , which little by little is transformed into metallic liquid hydrogen . Its core is composed of rocky and metallic elements . The second important component is helium and methane and ammonia can also be found.

Jupiter’s atmosphere:

It has one of the most dynamic atmospheres in the solar system , with a large number of clouds and large storms . Its composition includes molecules of ammonia and methane , in addition to simpler molecules such as helium , hydrogen, and sulfur . It has a fairly thin layer on its surface and its clouds are located at different levels within the troposphere.

Magnetic field:

Its magnetic field is formed by means of an internal dynamo that is supported by the circulation of the different conductive fluids of its nucleus. Its north pole is in the northern hemisphere of the planet and the south pole in the south. It has quadrupoles and octuples.

Rotation and translation:

The period of rotation of Jupiter is very interesting because it is the planet that rotates with the highest speed on itself. At the equator it is approximately 9,841 hours . Its rotation is not uniform and its speed can vary depending on the latitude . The translation period is approximately 11.86 Earth years , which means it takes 4,332 Earth days.

Jupiter satellites:

It has more than 60 satellites, probably asteroids . The first were discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1609, and his observation helped science understand that the earth moves around the sun. They are called Galilean satellites for this reason and are very similar to the moon. There are four major ones:  Io, Europa , Ganymede, and Callisto.


Being a gaseous planet, it has several rings that are not visible from Earth. They were discovered in the different missions carried out by Voyager . Its composition is based on fine dust , fine particles of ice and sulfur . The three rings are:  Halo, Main Ring and Fine Ring.


Jupiter’s high temperatures are due to the planet’s Great Red Spot . This storm has dynamics that cause heat and was discovered after the invention of the telescope. In it there are hurricane-force winds and the transport of the energy from the poles of the planet produces an intense magnetic field.

Jupiter’s great red spot:

This great blob is actually a huge storm spinning in the planet’s atmosphere . It is practically the same as a hurricane , but even bigger than one. It is about twice the size of the earth and its winds can reach speeds of 270 miles per hour. It rotates counterclockwise to the south of the planet, it is pale red almost orange.


  • Jupiter has rings which are not visible to the human eye.
  • It has more than 60 moons, but it could be even more.
  • The planet is capable of emitting its own radiation.
  • It has a large red stain, which is actually a huge storm.
  • Its clouds are made up of ammonium crystals.
  • It is the fastest spinning planet in the solar system.

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