Epistemology is a discipline that deals with the study of the nature and scope of knowledge and justified belief . It is responsible for analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it is managed to relate to similar notions such as the truth , belief and justification of the things that happen around us. It also deals with the means of production of knowledge , as well as skepticism about the different statements that are held about things. It is in charge of studying what is knowledge andconcepts related to the sources and criteria that contain the knowledge and the reality or certainty of each one of them.

What is epistemology?

Epistemology or philosophy of science is a branch of philosophy or discipline that is responsible for studying scientific research and its results together with scientific knowledge and its types, the possibility and reality that exists between the researcher and the certainty.

  • What epistemology studies
  • Characteristics of epistemology
  • Source
  • History of epistemology
  • Branches
  • Goals of epistemology
  • Importance
  • Examples

What epistemology studies

Epistemology, seen as a theory of knowledge , is responsible for studying aspects such as different historical , psychological and sociological facts or circumstances that can lead us to obtain the knowledge and criteria we need to justify or eliminate the concepts we see in our lives. daily. Study common concepts such as truth , objectivity , reality, and justification. It establishes whether the relationship between the concept under study and the researcher is true. In short, it is in charge of obtaining information on how the different scientific theories are developed, evaluated and changed and of knowing the degree of truth that they contain with respect to the processes of nature.

Characteristics of epistemology

Some of the characteristics that we observe in epistemology are the following:

  • There is a relationship between the subject and the object of study.
  • It asks a series of questions about how the relationship between subject and object of study can react to a broad criterion of truth.
  • The scientific method is used to develop objective knowledge and to study the environment.
  • It is the science of scientific knowledge .
  • It also focuses on the way in which the individual acts to develop their knowledge structures.
  • It is related to the different justifications that man has about his beliefs and knowledge.
  • It works as a model for ontology and ethics .
  • Study problems related to science and philosophy .
  • It proposes clear solutions to scientific research .


From the etymological point of view , the word epistemology has its origin in the Greek words ” episteme ” and ” logos “, where logos means discourse and episteme, study of science. The term originated during the Renaissance

History of epistemology

Epistemology has always been concerned with matters such as the nature , sources, and legitimacy of knowledge. In the course of Western philosophy, philosophers always concentrated on one or two of these themes, excluding the others. The concern with questions has dominated philosophy since the middle of the 20th century, but it was also discussed at some length in ancient times. Attention to the question of the reaches of knowledge seems to have begun with Plato, and has continued to this day. The uncertainty of knowing the sources of knowledge was also important in ancient times, but it has also been a central focus of epistemological discussion through the medieval periods and the early modern era. During the 20th century, epistemology was grouped into three schools : logical neopositivism , critical rationalism, and porpopperianism .


Epistemology has different branches on which it bases its studies, and these are the following:

  • The Logic of science , which is responsible for analyzing the logical structure of scientific theories.
  • The Semantics of Science , which is based on the analysis, systematization and interpretation of all scientific concepts.
  • The Ontology of Science , analysis and systematization of scientific postulates.
  • The Axiology of Science , which is in charge of studying the value system of a certain scientific community.
  • The Ethics of Science , which includes all those moral standards that the members of a scientific community must comply with.
  • The Aesthetics of Science , which corresponds to the study of aesthetic values ​​within scientific research

Goals of epistemology

The primary and arguably the only objective of epistemology is to seek the means to achieve clarification of the conditions in which human knowledge can occur and the limits that exist for this knowledge to occur. Judge the validity and scope of the knowledge.


The importance of epistemology lies in the fact that they seek the definition of knowledge and the concepts related to it, the different points of view, the forms of knowledge and the degree of certainty of each one of them. Seeks the way to elucidate and systematize the philosophical concepts helping to solve the different problems regarding science and philosophy . It reconstructs scientific theories in an axiomatic way and serves as a model for other branches of philosophy.


We can mention as examples of the branches of epistemology the following:

  • Science logic
  • Semantics of science
  • Theory of scientific knowledge

As for epistemology classes , we can mention the following:

  • biology
  • Philosophy
  • Math
  • Psychology
  • Chemistry

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