What is Sculpture? Types, Definition, Characteristics, Concept and Evolution

What is sculpture?


For thousands of years sculpture , being also works of art, has filled the spirit of human life. Therefore, the earliest sculpture was probably made to provide magical aid to hunters. Then in the early days of civilization, statues were used to represent the gods. Likewise, ancient kings, possibly hoping to become immortal, had carvings and sculptures of their likeness. types of sculpture


Similarly, the Greeks made statues showing perfectly formed men and women. Thus, early Christians decorated churches with demons and devils, reminders of the evil presence of the many parishioners who could not read or write. From its inception to the present, the sculpture has been largely monumental. Similarly, in the 15th century, monuments to biblical heroes were built on the streets of Italian cities, and later, in the 20th century, a monument to a composer was built in the heart of New York City. types of sculpture


In this sense, in sculpture as an art, the design and realization of large fountains with sculptures in the center has predominated, which have been common place next to modern skyscrapers as in the courts of old palaces. Similarly, the ancient Sumerians celebrated military victory with sculpture, just as the participants of World War II also used sculpture to honor their soldiers.


History of sculpture types of sculpture

The sculpture may be the oldest of the arts, since people carved or painted before they have designed their homes. The earliest drawings were probably carved into the rock or incised (scratched) in the ground. Therefore, these drawings were the precursors of the relief of sculpture and also the beginning of painting. Similarly, only a few objects survived to show what sculpture was like thousands of years ago. However, there are hundreds of recent examples of sculpture made by people living in primitive cultures. These examples are believed to be similar to prehistoric sculpture . Hence, from the recent primitive sculptureand from the few surviving prehistoric pieces, it can be judged that prehistoric sculpture was never made to be beautiful. Thus, sculpture was always made to be used in rituals. Consequently, due to human beings’ constant struggle for survival, primitive people made sculptures to provide spiritual support. types of sculpture

In this sense, the figures of men, women and animals, as well as the combination of all that these served as honor to the strange and sometimes terrifying forces of nature, who were worshiped as evil or good spirits. Strangely shaped figures must have represented prayers for strong sons, good crops, and abundant game and fish. Sculpture in the form of masks was used by priests or healers in dances designed to drive evil spirits or ask favors from good ones.

Stages of Sculpture types of sculpture

Throughout history, sculpture has always been a milestone, it has had evolution and important development, you can see the different stages of sculpture:

The early civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and China gradually developed forms of writing around 3000 BC. People from these civilizations, like their prehistoric ancestors, also expressed deeply felt beliefs in sculpture.

Egyptian Sculpture types of sculpture

Egypt and all Egyptian art was based on the belief in an afterlife. The body of the Egyptian ruler or Pharaoh, was always carefully preserved, also all his belongings and treasures were buried with him to attend to his needs forever. Similarly, the pyramids, great monumental tombs of Giza, were built for the most powerful rulers. Likewise, the Pharaoh and his wife were buried in deep cut chambers within the huge stone blocks.

On the other hand, Egyptian sculptors made seated and standing sculptures in the round and in relief. Hence, changes in style reveal changing circumstances. Thus, colossal figures like those of Ramses II at the entrance to his tomb at Abu-Simbel, are vast, powerful, and demanding. A small portrait of Ramses II shows the smooth finish, precision craftsmanship, and elegance of new united art. types of sculpture

Mesopotamian Sculpture

Mesopotamia, which means the land between the rivers, had a much less stable society than Egypt and lacked the large amounts of stone that Egypt had for monumental sculpture . Their cities were often destroyed by floods and invading armies. Therefore, the earliest examples of sculpture in this region were formed from lightweight materials, such as baked and unbaked clay, wood, or combinations of wood, shells, and gold leaf. Therefore, a group of stone figures from Asmar represent the gods, priests and worshipers in a very different way than from sculpture Egyptian. These figures are cone-shaped, with pleated skirts, small heads, huge and prominent noses with large eyes and fixed gaze.

In this same vein, the stone sculptures of the city’s palaces were heavily fortified like Nineveh, Nimrud, and Khorsabad and reveal the aggressive, warlike character of the conquerors of this region, the Assyrians. At the entrances of Assyrian palaces, huge symbols of the king were placed that symbolized majesty, also images in the form of monsters and colossal five-legged guardians, with wings and bulls with human heads. Likewise, stone slabs carved in relief with scenes of hunts, battles, victory banquets, and ceremonial rituals were placed within the palaces along the lower walls. types of sculpture

Aegean Sculpture types of sculpture

Of this civilization there are only some examples of sculpture that remain from the colorful Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. In the same way, small figurines of priestesses and serpent goddesses and acrobats, vases with scenes in relief such as being trapped in a net or animated harvesters returning from the fields showing animated suggestions of the Minoans in action were sculpted in ivory and terracotta. The Lion’s Gate at Mycenae (around 1250 BC), with its two enormous beasts guarding the entrance to the fortified city, is a sculpture exceptional monumental of this time. The beaten gold mask of Agamemnon is memorable for its suggestion of the great heroes of Homeric legends. Likewise, the mask that was found with gold cups, daggers, pectorals and other objects in the tombs and sepulchers of the Mycenae axis. types of sculpture

Ancient Greece sculpture

Around 600 BC, Greece developed one of the great civilizations in the history of the world. Sculpture became one of the most important forms of expression for the Greeks. The Greek belief that man is the measure of all things clearly shows what sculpture means Greek. The human figure was the main theme of all Greek art. Therefore, sculptors in Greece were constantly looking for better ways to represent the human figure. Therefore, the Greeks developed a standing figure of a naked man, called the Kouros Apollo. The Kouros serves to represent gods and heroes. Similarly, the Kore, or standing figure of a covered woman, was more graceful and was used to portray maidens and goddesses. The winged female figure, or Nike, became the personification of victory. A transcendent fact of Greek sculpture is that sculptors focused their energies on a limited number of problems which could have helped bring about the rapid changes that occurred in sculpture. Greek between the 7th century and the late 4th century BC Thus, the shift from abstraction to naturalism, from simple to realistic figures, occurred during this period. Therefore, the figures below have normal proportions, easily standing or sitting in perfectly balanced poses. types of sculpture

Etruscan and Roman sculpture

The sculpture and Greek art had been exported to Italy long before the Romans ruled the land. By the 7th and 6th centuries BC the Etruscans were firmly established in Italy, so hundreds of objects have been and still are in extensive Etruscan cemeteries. Some of the sculptures and many vases are Greek, while others are animated Etruscan translations of the Greek form. Many small bronze figures of peasants, warriors or gods demonstrate the great talent of the Etruscans as metallurgists and sculptors. For this reason, Rome benefited from the dual artistic heritage of Greek and Etruscan sculpture. Thus, the inventiveness of Roman sculptors were added to this heritage. Similarly, the most important contributions of Roman sculptors were portraits. types of sculpture

Christian sculpture types of sculpture

The sculpture of this period resembled the art of Rome. Hence the sarcophagi (funerary chests) found in Italy are all Roman in type, although they are given special meaning by themes, signs, or symbols important to Christians. The Sculpture, however, it was not a natural form of expression for the early Christians. This was so because one of the ten commandments prohibits the making of images (carving). Thus, many of the first Christians interpreted this commandment, as did the Hebrews, in the sense that they considered it a mistake to make any image of the human figure. Eventually the church authorities decided that this art could serve Christianity. Therefore, it was only the making of idols (false gods), which was considered a violation of the commandment. types of sculpture

There are relatively few examples of sculpture made in the first 1,000 years of Christianity. Among these rare examples are portable altars, reliquaries (containers for the remains of Christian saints and martyrs), chalices, and other objects used in Christian worship services. These were fashioned with great care and were often made from precious materials. Thus, sculptor artists used the fragile and beautiful medium of ivory in many ways. There were relief carvings for small altars or as covers for the gospels, the Bible, or prayer books. Small, independent figures represented the virgin and baby Jesus, angels, or saints.

Romanesque sculpture types of sculpture

A brilliant new chapter in Christian art began after the year 1000. For the next three centuries sculptors, architects, masons, carpenters, and hundreds of other artisans create some of the most impressive Christian churches ever built.

These artists worked on a larger and bolder scale than had been possible for hundreds of years. His ideas seemed some of the best examples of great structures known from Roman buildings. The term “Romanesque” suggests the Roman qualities of 11th and 12th century art. Important changes were made by these artists. Thus the Romanesque churches of the Germans differ from the church of the Italians and Spanish and also from the French. Therefore, the Ideas of painting, carving and construction circulated freely, which for people often transformed into pilgrimages to worship these holy places in different countries.

In this sense, an example of Romanesque sculpture from the 11th century shows the Roman way of how ideas were translated. The bronze doors of Hildesheim Cathedral have ten panels with scenes from the Bible. The placement, purpose and arrangement of these gates are clearly reminiscent of the fifth century doors of Santa Sabina in Rome. But the details are different.

In this sense, the small figures were placed so that they turn and turn freely. Thus, their heads and hands are enlarged and protruded above the surface of the relief. types of sculpture

Gothic Sculpture types of sculpture

After the 12th century, sculpture had gradually changed from the clear and concentrated abstractions of Romanesque art to a more natural and realistic appearance. Therefore, human figures in natural proportions were carved in high relief on portals and columns of the church. As the more skilled Gothic sculptors, they also acquired greater freedom and independence. Later Gothic figures appear much more realistic than those made during the Romanesque and earlier Gothic periods. The faces of the statues have expression, and their clothes cover them in a natural way. Hundreds of carvings in the great Gothic cathedrals throughout Western Europe present aspects of the Christian faith in terms that every Christian could understand.

Renaissance sculpture

In the Mediterranean Sea, the Italian peninsula stands out, at the crossroads of several worlds, which had been the heart of the Roman Empire. Therefore, Rome was the center of the Western Christian world. Later, northeastern Italy, especially Venice, became the gateway to the Near East. Therefore, Italian artists do not fully accept the Gothic styles that dominated art in Western Europe. The reason is that Italian artists were affected by the remnants of the classical age and exposed to the oriental influence of Byzantine art. Thus, already in the thirteenth century the Italians planted the seeds of a new era such as the Renaissance. Although elements of Byzantine and medieval art contributed much to the formation of Renaissance sculpture,

Baroque Sculpture types of sculpture

Sculpture in the 17th century continued to be treated with the same wide variety of sculptural problems as its Renaissance predecessors, with the human figure as a form of expression. However, they reacted, against the mannerism of the sculptors of the late sixteenth century. Rather, they worked to bring about a return to Michelangelo’s greater strength, the energy and agility of 15th century sculpture. Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680) was, like Michelangelo, a talented artist of Baroque sculpture. In a long and productive career, he easily became the dominant figure in his country and one of the most important artists in Europe during a brilliant and creative period.

Rococo sculpture types of sculpture

The basic qualities of 17th century art were carried forward in the 18th century but were transformed for the taste of a different generation. The term “rococo” suggests a preference for lighter and more decorative effects in sculpture and in all the arts. Jean Baptiste Pigalle (1714-85) and Étienne Maurice Falconet (1716-91) display the same technical prowess as Bernini, but their figures are light and cheerful. The skill in her delicate work, with her small, sweet figures of sweet and graceful movements, represent a remarkable change from the strong religious intensity of Bernini’s work. types of sculpture

Neoclassical sculpture

Neoclassical and Romantic sculpture was consolidated in the 18th century, while Clodion (1738-1814) and other Rococo sculptors were still active. This direction, called neoclassical seeks to describe the deliberate return to the classical theme and style, lasted in force for almost a century. The change can be seen in the work of the prominent sculptor Jean Antoine Houdon (1741-1828), therefore the statue of George Washington could be compared to a portrait of a Roman emperor. types of sculpture

For its part, the romantic movement was growing, even though many artists still preferred to work in the classical tradition in the academies. In the 1860s the young sculptor named Auguste Rodin was rejected three times from the École des Beaux-Arts, the Academy of Paris. At the end of the century he was the most famous sculptor in France and in most of Europe.

20th century sculpture

The 20th century was a time of experimentation with new ideas, new styles, and new materials. Studies of the human figure gave rise to new topics such as dreams, ideas, emotions, as well as the study of form and space. In the same way, materials such as plastic, chrome and welded steel were used, as well as boxes, broken car parts and old furniture parts. Likewise, 20th century sculptors owe Rodin a great debt, due to his tremendous production and variety that inspired a new generation of sculptors to express new thoughts in an art form that had been repeating old ideas for 200 years. Although Rodin’s successors tend to move away from his realism and literary themes, his innovations had a major influence. types of sculpture

Modern and Postmodern Sculpture

Since the 1960s, so-called modern art has been replaced by contemporary art or postmodernism. Unlike earlier modernist and postmodern sculptors today (for example, Pop artists such as Claes Oldenburg, Robert Indiana, and Neo-Pop artists such as Jeff Koons, do not hesitate to use a wide variety of materials, images, and display methods However, these styles tend to be more localized, which is why, as a current trend among contemporary art movements, it is to distrust the great ideas and internationalism of the modern art movements of the 19th and mid-20th centuries. types of sculpture

Types of Sculptures types of sculpture

The basic traditional forms of this art of sculpture are:

Exempt Sculpture types of sculpture

It is surrounded on all sides by space.

Relief sculpture types of sculpture

It is a bas-relief encompassing high relief and sunken relief, where the design remains in the background, usually stone or wood. Examples of relief work can be seen in megalithic art, such as the complex spiral engravings found at Newgrange, Ireland. In the same way, the Gothic architectural reliefs appear above all the main European cathedrals of the period: witness of the Saints in the south trancept of Chartres Cathedral and the apostles in the north trancept of Rheims Cathedral. types of sculpture

Column Sculpture types of sculpture

From Trajan in Rome, the temple of Zeus at Olympia and the Parthenon. They can also be classified by their theme, such is the case of sculptures:

Full length types of sculpture

The Two Versions of David by Donatello and Michelangelo, is usually a full-length rendering three-dimensional portrait of a person.


generally it represents only the head, neck and shoulders, it is the case of the bust of George Washington (1788) Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828). types of sculpture

Equestrian Sculpture

A statue of a person on horseback, like that of Giambologna (1529-1608) by Cosimo de ‘Medici in Florence. Perhaps the largest equestrian statue is that of the baroque-style bronze horseman by Falconet in Saint Petersburg’s Decembrist Square: a monument to Tsar Peter the Great and a Russian masterpiece of sculpture, albeit created by a Frenchman. types of sculpture

Public Art Sculpture

It is the art of the living physical presence, it is an ideal form with supreme examples in western culture being some of the most outstanding monuments: the monumental megalith of Stonehenge, the classic sculptures of the Parthenon in Athens, the Celtic high crosses of Ireland and in the 12th and 13th centuries, the Gothic column of statues and reliefs from the cathedrals of northern France and Germany. types of sculpture

Sculpture Legacy

Legacy of Ancient Greece

Although the art of ancient Greece still shapes the ideas of what art should look like, classical Greek art itself was the product of many influences. The legacy of the cultures of the Greeks can be seen in the early statues, in the stone figures called kouroi, or youths that were common. With their rigid stature and strongly stylized in the sense of human anatomy, they show the influence of the ancient Egyptians. Therefore, over the centuries Greek artists would develop their own style, which strived to capture the human body in the most realistic way possible. types of sculpture

The rise of Greek states and cities and the birth of democracy in Athens saw an explosion in the arts in Greece, which entered its golden age. For the ancient Greeks, capturing the workings of the human body in art became a very important goal of life and existence. Some great paintings survive this era, with painting and sculpture being a demonstration of how Greek art developed. Likewise, the new techniques of artists who sought to represent the body in increasingly realistic ways, in action, at rest, even participating in erotic acts, this obsession with capturing the human body profoundly influenced all the art that followed in the following centuries and millennia. types of sculpture

For many the high value of Greek art can be found with views of Athens. Thus, the Parthenon is one of the best known buildings in the world. Originally a temple to the goddess Athena, the Parthenon features extraordinary, realistic conical columns and sculptures, which had an enormous influence on art. Built when Athens was at the height of its power, the Parthenon became an architectural model for future civilizations that revered Greek culture from ancient Rome, to Great Britain at the height of the Empire, 19th century, and in Washington DC.

In this regard, the statue of the goddess Aphrodite in which the sculptor Praxiteles created the first statue of a nude woman of whose original statue, it is only known how she looked due to the many Roman copies that were made. Nicknamed the mother of nudes, the beauty and realistic attitude of the Aphrodite statue has inspired artists for over 2000 years. Much imitated by later artists, Praxíteles’s vision remains the ideal of feminine beauty even today. types of sculpture

Legacy of the Roman Empire

On the other hand, the rise of the Roman Empire saw the Romans adopt the culture, art and traditions of the ancient Greeks. In 146 BC, the Roman victory at the Battle of Corinth indicates Rome’s dominance over the Greek world. The Roman conquerors embraced Greek art. Hence, the key features of an ancient Greek athletic statue, the Doriphorus of Polykleitos was restructured centuries later into the statue of Emperor Augustus. For the Romans the art of the Greeks far exceeds their own arts and they claimed to be their natural heirs. They also parted ways with Greek art and its entire vast empire and left traces for future generations to discover. types of sculpture

In this order of ideas, with the fall of the Roman Empire saw the influence of Greek art diminish in Western Europe. However, it continued to flourish in the east. The eastern part of the Roman Empire survived the fall of Rome and became known as the Byzantine Empire. Based in Constantinople, modern Istanbul, Greek is spoken and there are still influences from Greek-inspired Roman art. Similarly, Byzantine art, through pieces such as Barberini’s ivory carving, continued in the Roman style and thus helped to keep alive the artistic legacy of the Greeks.

Main representatives of the Sculpture

Religious wood carving was taken to new heights during the Northern Renaissance by master sculptors such as: Tilman Riemenschneider and Veit Stoss, known for their intricate work on wooden altars and statuettes, while the Baroque Counter-Reformation stimulates the supreme as examples of the Christian Catholic in sculptures in the form of bronze and marble (among other things), by Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), such as the well-known Cornaro Chapel series (1645-52) including the Ecstasy of Saint Teresa. types of sculpture

Auguste Preault (1810-79) was exceptional in taking an uncompromisingly romantic view of his work. He emerges from the occasional references in writings of the time as a bohemian, a man of sharp wit that Baudelaire recognizes as the only spirit accompanied by a chisel. Thus, the writers of the time felt that sculpture was the art least equipped for the expression of Romanticism, but Preault seems to have deliberately set out to challenge this point of view by embodying his expression of intense personal emotion in the framework of the sculpture of the relief. types of sculpture

For his part, Tuerie (1834) lacks a clearly defined theme and his sculpture was conceived as a fragment, however, the expression of the anguish of the victims is unprecedented in the visual arts of the century until the bronze sculpture of the Rodin’s burghers of Calais. The relief of Ophelia (1843), is equally surprising, it was originally conceived in 1843 and for those who do not know much about sculpture, it could well be confused with a production of Nouveau art, of the art of this century. Echoes of the sculpture of the 16th century French artist Jean Goujon can be found, but almost nothing of the great classical tradition that nurtures his contemporaries.

Aristide Maillol (1861-1944) rejected the rough surfaces of Rodin and worked the smooth figures of stone and bronze that seem to rest in quiet repose. types of sculpture

On the other hand, Modern Secular Public Art features famous sculptures such as the Statue of Liberty, Chicago’s Picasso and a series of metal figures for the Chicago Civic Center and the Dublin Spire, known as the ‘Peak’, Created by Ian Ritchie (architecture sculpture b.1947). Thus, contemporary public sculpture continues to challenge traditional concepts of three-dimensional art, through its new spatial concepts and its use of everyday materials in fixed-form sculptures, mounted and created in spaces and numerous installations.

Importance of Sculpture

In sculpture, some artists now use a 3D printer to create what they need for their work. As an art form, sculpture has the ability to evolve and change, and over the centuries it has gone from classical to abstract. types of sculpture

In recent years sculpture has become a much more prominent art form, thanks to a number of works by artists such as Antony Gormley (Iron Men at Crosby Beach and The Angel of the North).

Reasons of greater popularity in Sculpture types of sculpture

One of the reasons sculpture has become popular again is because it is so much more attractive. Seeing a sculpture is very different from seeing a flat painting hanging on a wall.

You can walk around it, look through it, on it or inside it. People are also fascinated by the way sculpture is created. From Michelangelo’s classic David statue to modern art sculptures that adorn parks and gardens, a variety of materials are used that represent a wide diversity of ideas and images.

Sculptors have gone beyond using stone, wood, marble, and bronze. Almost anything and everything can be used to create a work. Some artists now use a 3D printer to create figures that are considered within the sculpture as true works of art.

As an art form, sculpture has the ability to evolve and change, and over the centuries it has gone from classical to abstract. In the 20th century there have been a number of different movements in the world of sculpture. types of sculpture

For example, in the early 1950s, there was a movement known as the Geometry of Fear, while in the 1960s there was the New Generation. In the 1980s there was the New British Sculpture and in the 1990s the new wave of sculptors was called Young British Artists. types of sculpture

For centuries man has relied on the use of sculptures

Over time, the use of sculptures evolved in such a way that at the beginning of civilization, people used them as a representation of the gods. Ancient kings who wished to immortalize their rulers made statues in their likeness, and in doing so led to the beginning of portrait sculpture, an art that continues to this day.

Sculptures have served many purposes for a long time, and continue to do so to this day. Therefore, some of the ways in which these objects have served the various areas of life in society are: types of sculpture


One of the most common ways that people have used sculpture in the past is in association with their religious beliefs. Long before people acquired the knowledge to read and write, the church had no means to deliver the message of hope and doom that would befall those who did not adhere to the word.

In ancient Greece, the statue of Zeus at Olympia served as a reminder of the gods. It was at a height of forty-three meters, thanks to the creativity and hard work of Phidias. Its creation took place in 453 BC, and it was composed of gold panels and ivory plates, carefully placed in a wooden frame, completing an image that spoke to the hearts of the people.

Honor types of sculpture

Portrait sculpture arose when leaders sought ways to symbolize their rulers in the form of statues. The kings would have their image carved out of materials that they would later place in essential parts of the kingdom. An example is in Egypt, where the pharaohs had representative objects that served to show their strength compared to that of the common man.

Anti-sculpture movements

Sculpture is now recognized as a form of representation that people use not only for religious purposes but also as a means to honor people in society. types of sculpture

People sometimes refer to anti-sculpture movements as Aniconism, which is the lack of material symbols from both the natural and the supernatural world. This movement was particularly prevalent in religions where there is a belief in only one God.

The lack of representation can extend from the higher power to anything else that exists including humans and animals. This belief comes from religious traditions, and therefore the use of any representation is classified as taboo and therefore is not allowed. types of sculpture

When this movement is underway and works together with the destruction of anything taboo, it is called Iconoclasm, which is a Greek word related to the non-acceptance of images.

Religions that believe in only one God 

In these religions the use of sculptures is not allowed. According to historical contexts, the use of figures competed with the unique status that God had in religion. Therefore, law enforcement officials had to ensure that critical humans, as well as pagan idols, did not compete with God for status.

Idol worship was a threat to the monotheistic nature of religions and law enforcement officials, who included missionaries and prophets, fought against the existence of the sculptures by banishing their use. types of sculpture

Their beliefs coincided with what led to the banishment of humans from the Heavens when they tried to build the tower of Babel, and that humans did not have the same powers of creation as God, and therefore the use of the sculptures was wrong. types of sculpture


Buddhists avoided the use of sculptures to represent Buddha. Thus, they chose to have symbols of an empty throne, their footprints, a Bodhi tree and a prayer wheel. Although human beings often appeared in their representations, they had nothing to symbolize the Buddha.

This movement conformed to the wishes of the Buddha, where he discouraged the use of symbols after the extinction of his body. However, this later changed, and many people think that it is the result of Greco-Buddhist interactions. Towards the end of the 20th century, an art historian came out to challenge the theories behind beliefs, which to this day remains a debate.


This religion prohibits the worship of idols. There is a dependence on the materials used, so in many Sunni fundamentalist sects, it is found that there is a movement towards the non-acceptance of sculptures.


Many people associate anti-sculpture with Abrahamic religions. However, there are some shared ideas behind these religions and Hinduism, as their believers follow Aniconism. Therefore, the symbols used to represent their God are often abstract, and believers find it easy to focus on the icons.

Christianity types of sculpture

There were many cases in which believers destroyed sculptures that they considered a threat to the status of God. These destructions took place mainly during two periods. During the 8th and 9th centuries, the councils of the Orthodox Church, the Catholic Church, the Pope and the Byzantine Emperors had a complicated relationship where the idea of ​​iconoclasm entered the scene. types of sculpture


Aniconism was present in Judaism until the 19th century, when they embraced the use of sculptures. types of sculpture

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