Túpac Amaru II, whose original name was José Gabriel Condorcanqui, was an important and renowned Peruvian Indian revolutionary , a descendant of the last Inca ruler, Túpac Amaru, with whom he was identified when he led the Peruvian peasants during a failed rebellion against Spanish rule. Túpac Amaru II was a cacique by inheritance who lived in the Tinta region , in southern Peru . He received a formal Jesuit education , but maintained his identification with the Indian population . In 1780 he arrested and executed the magistrate Antonio Arriaga, under charges of cruelty, an act that led to the last general Indian rebellion against Spain , which at first had the support of some Creoles or Spaniards born in America.
- When was born: 03/19/1738
- Where he was born: Cuzco, Peru
- When he died: 05/18/1781
- Where he died: Cuzco, Peru
Who Túpac Amaru II?
Túpac Amaru II, a Peruvian revolutionary descended from the Incas , was the leader of the largest Native American revolt in the Americas. He was a man of sufficient knowledge who had a passion for reform and going against injustice .
- What did
- Biography of Túpac Amaru II
- Tupac Amaru II Revolution
- Trial and death
- Tupac Amaru II phrases
- Movies and books
Túpac Amaru II was in charge of guiding what was called the ” Great Rebellion ” that took place in the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata and in the Viceroyalty of Peru , which belonged to the Kingdom of Spain , a rebellion that began with the capture and execution of the magistrate Antonio de Arriaga .
He was in charge of organizing the largest indigenous protest movement in Peru, he requested the freedom of America from Spain and that indigenous exploitation , the townships and the alcabalas be eliminated . He decreed the abolition of black slavery in America. He is recognized, mainly in Peru, as the founder of the Peruvian national identity .
Biography of Túpac Amaru II
Túpac Amaru II, whose name was José Gabriel Condorcaqui , was born in Surimana in the Cusco region , on March 19, 1738. Son of Miguel Condorcanqui, a Quechua cacique, and Rosa Noguera , a mestizo woman. He was appointed chief of Surimana, Pampamarca and Tungasuca and married Micaela Bastidas , with whom he had three children: Hipólito, Mariano and Fernando.
He studied at the San Francisco de Borja del Cusco College of Noble Indians , where he learned from his Jesuit teachers . It was dedicated to the trade and transport of goods which made him creditor of good fortune but it was always in solidarity with the indigenous people who were exploited by the Spaniards.
He made many protests against tax reforms and in 1780 he was in charge of leading a rebellion against the colony , which he was about to win, but was captured and defeated . He died dismembered on May 18, 1781 in the Plaza de Armas of Cusco .
Tupac Amaru II Revolution
In 1776, Túpac Amaru II decided to travel to Lima to file a complaint about the abusive exploitation suffered by the indigenous people , but their claims were not heard and in 1778 he returned to Tungasuca. He began his fight against the colony in 1780 when he managed to capture and execute the mayor of Tinta, Antonio Arriaga , thanks to the help of mestizos and criollos.
After having obtained the victory of his troops in the battle of Sangarará, Túpac Amaru II was captured by the Spanish, who forced him to witness the execution of his wife Micaela Bastidas, his family and his allies . They tried to dismember him by tying his limbs to horses, but failing to do so, he was beheaded .
This rebellion had several causes , one of them was the increase in taxes by the Bourbon reform who also created internal customs, indigenous taxes and the collection of tributes from mestizos. Another cause was the mining mita because the Indians were forced to work in shifts, were exploited and died in the mines. The third reason was because of the mercantile distributions that abused the merchandise and sold them at very high prices to the indigenous people.
Trial and death
Túpac Amaru II and his family were captured on April 6, 1781 and taken to Cuzco . He was arrested in the convent of the “ Compañía de Jesús ” where he was interrogated and tortured to obtain information from his comrades in the rebellion. After being forced to witness the execution of his wife , relatives , followers and children , he was mutilated , dismembered and beheaded and his head placed on a spear for display. The revolution continued until the Spanish government issued a general pardonfor the insurgents. Importance
Tupac Amaru, had a very important role in the indigenous peoples of the time because he was the first person who promoted the uprising and protests against the Spanish with the aim of seeking freedom . Thanks to him, the seed was sown and the desire to be free and to break ties that did not allow peoples to prosper.
Although it had negative repercussions, it showed the Spaniards that the natives were capable of organizing, giving rise to the first pre-independence movements in America, since they ignored the authority of the king and his subordinates .
His work began the emancipatory stage in the history of Peru that sought independence after almost three centuries of being part of the Spanish colony, considered a precursor of the independence of this country.
Tupac Amaru II phrases
Some of the most important phrases pronounced by Túpac Amaru II are the following:
- Let us live as brothers and gathered in one body. Let us take care of the protection and conservation of the Spaniards, Creoles, mestizos, Zambos and Indians, because they are all compatriots, as if they were born in these lands and of the same origin.
- Here I am to be punished alone, so that others remain alive and I alone in punishment.
- I only feel, of the Creole countrymen, to whom it has been my encouragement, do not follow any damage .
- Let’s cut off once and for all the bad government of so many drone thieves who steal our honey from our combs!
- The owners want Mitayo Indians because they treat them more like slaves, because they make them work excessively to the rigor of punishment, and because they are paid less.
- There are only two culprits here: You for subduing my people and I for wanting to liberate them .
Movies and books
Books have been written to talk about the life of Tupac Amaru II and even a movie was made. Túpac Amaru , is a film directed by Federico García . Some books are the following:
- The Rebellion of Túpac Amaru (Héctor Huerto Vizcarra)
- The rebellion of Túpac Amaru (Charles Walker)
- Túpac Amaru, historical drama (Carlos Daniel Valcarcel)
- Biography of Túpac Amaru II (Omar Sevillano)
- Túpac Amaru, the young cacique (Juan Acevedo)