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Toyotism

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The Toyotism , also known as the Toyota Production System , is a term that was used to explain a different model in terms of management and production that was developed in Japan by the Company Toyota Lean Production . A new way in its time to improve production systems to be able to adapt it to the conditions that had remained after the postwar period and to the intrinsic culture of Japan.

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What is toyotism?

The Toyotism was a kind of system of production that was based on a principle known by the name of ” just in time ” which stated that production only had manufactured it really needed at the right time when a certain product was requested.

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  • What does it consist of
  • Characteristics of toyotism
  • Historic context
  • Principles of toyotism
  • How does it work
  • Advantage
  • Disadvantages
  • How it differs from Fordism
  • Importance
  • Examples of toyotism

What does it consist of

The Toyotism is a method of organization of time whose driver was Taiichi Ohno , an engineer working for the company Toyota . This type of production is mainly aimed at avoiding business and manufacturing actions that are not really necessary. Based on the principle of ” just in time ” (or “just in time”, as it is known in Spanish), Toyotism’s main objective was to be able to produce only what was necessary and at the precise momentwhere the product was needed. It was the ideal means of making work more flexible and mechanization losing its importance.

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Characteristics of toyotism

Among the most important characteristics that must be emphasized regarding Toyotaism are the following:

  • Only goods that have been previously requested are manufactured in order to avoid overproduction .
  • It is characterized by the rotation of employees so that they have the ability to learn new skills.
  • The work is encouraged as a team and not individually.
  • Workers become multifunctional people .
  • It generates a reduction in manufacturing costs which at the same time reduces prices for the consumer .
  • The employees and their bosses can get to make decisions together considering flexibility.
  • The production phases are not divided so all employees have knowledge about the different production processes.

Historic context

This current of production had its beginnings in the year 1970 when Fordism began to be displaced little by little. It managed to enter the markets and industries, especially when the oil crisis occurred in 1973 , at which time the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries set out to prevent crude exports to countries that were in favor of Israel. in the Yom Kippur War .

This situation caused the prices of the crude oil will increase very significantly the same time generating a large increase in terms of inflation . The unemployment and low growth of the economy were also influential factors. By introducing this new system, Japan was gradually able to improve its industry and with the passage of time it also spread to other countries.

Principles of toyotism

The principles of Toyotaism are three and were the following:

  • Just in time : this principle was born due to the loss of time that originated from the reprogramming of the machinery and the instructions to the workers. The solution was to redesign the machines, giving workers access to machines that were easier to program, with this, the cost of storage was increased, which caused the production system to also have to be changed , then, only the ones were manufactured. goods needed when they were needed.
  • Auto activation : in this case, production was activated when orders were received and for this, workers had to have high levels of knowledge regarding the production process . Thanks to the Japanese education system, the system provided greater flexibility by increasing the speed of market changes.
  • Teamwork : teams were able to organize themselves in a better way and were organized around a machine . With this, an assembly line was started where the production phases were divided between the same workers.

How does it work

Toyotism is a process that consists of using an assembly line so that in this way employees and workers can perform a single function without having to move from one place to another and with this, unnecessary time was eliminated by improving manufacturing. It was a mechanism that tried to reduce costs and at the same time increase production to expand the market. He was also a means by which attempted to eliminate the actions that were not considered necessary based primarily on the concept of ” just in time ” where onlyit produced what was needed.

Advantage

The main advantages of toyotism are as follows:

  • Toyotism gives the company the great ability to avoid waste .
  • It gives the industry greater efficiency while preventing certain environmental conditions that can affect work efficiency.
  • It reduces company costs by making better use of resources.
  • It improves cash flows and by reducing the need for large storage , costs can also be reduced.

Disadvantages

Among its most important disadvantages can be found the following:

  • When applied, it becomes necessary to monitor productivity in order to assess possible improvements.
  • This type of work principle in a better way when using components that are considered stable , because when products are used subject to restriction , you can put in danger the entire system .
  • Manpower is a little more difficult to control .
  • Labor exploitation can occur .
  • If at some point the factory or industry does not have the immediate capacity to meet the demand for a certain product, it may not be possible to meet the needs of the consumer market .

How it differs from Fordism

The main difference between these two processes is that Fordism occurs in mass production , it can control the times as well as the performance of all personnel within the work area. It uses a large number of workers to participate during the production process and offer a single product to the market , finally, in Fordism, employees specialize only in a certain area. The Toyotism meanwhile, makes production depending on the demand , it is given greater labor flexibility andteamwork , it is necessary to acquire technological equipment in order to make the production process easier and offer more options to the market .

Importance

The main importance of this type of means of production is that it makes it possible for companies to avoid unnecessary expenses by generating a certain degree of stability in companies. In addition, it is a means by which teamwork within companies can be improved and the automation of processes always supervised by man can be applied , which also allows for better self-control in the quality of the products that are manufactured.

Examples of toyotism

Some of the companies that still continue to apply Toyotism for their production are:

  • John Deere, a company that manufactures agricultural machinery in the United States .
  • Toyota company.

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