In the area of construction and engineering there are many types of machines that facilitate the work that man must do when it comes to some type of construction . Among them are the steamroller , which also is known by the name steamroller or compactor , which is a heavy machine consists of a tractor and by a cylinder too heavy to be placed front and functions as a front wheel.

What is a steamroller?

Rammer is a type of road roller, is a vehicle of compaction that is being used to compact soil , gravel , asphalt , or the layer subbase crushed stone or any other material surface at a certain place .

  • Definition
  • What is the steamroller for
  • Types
  • Roller Features
  • Story
  • Parties
  • How a roller works


The compactor is a machine in the form of tractor which can rhodes thanks to cylinder heavy which is used to flatten and pave the roads and pavements. They are machines created to be able to build roads and flatten land, used mainly in the area of civil engineering, which perform adequately on practically all types of soil.


What is the steamroller for

The main use of the rollers is to crush , knead or vibrate loose materials by applying direct pressure . The lamination process is used to compact the materials of foundation loose to remain compacted and not loosen. Rollers are machines most often used for road construction or to create compact foundations over large areas, although they can also be used in areas as diverse as landfills or agricultural projects .


There are several types of rammers, among them we mention:

Cylinder roller

This is the most common type of roller today. It contains a cylindrical roller which is a simple drum or a set of drums , usually made of steel. The tandem roller has single drum wheels at the front and rear of the machine, while the three-wheel rollers have a larger drum wheel and the front and two at the rear. They are called smooth- wheel rollers and are used to compact stone or material on flat ground . Some rollers will have spray systems to keep the drums clean. His movement is slow and it is necessary to pass the machines several times to achieve compaction of the soil.

Vibratory roller

This roller is formed by one or two drums wheels of smooth surface vibrating by an internal eccentric shaft. It is used in granular base layers and for laying asphalt in road construction. The vibrations help reduce air gaps and bring the particles closer to each other. They offer higher performance and efficiency , better compaction and greater depth of effect.

Rubber roller

It has several rows of tires separated from each other at the front and rear of the machine to exert compaction pressure . They work best on soft materials and poorly compacted soils, but are also used in road construction . They are quite fast and achieve adequate compaction.

Tamping roller

It has a rectangular shaped studded wheel drum in a hexagonal shape . The “feet” do not have to be rectangular, they can also be round or spindle – shaped . They are used in heavy soils, such as clay . They are fairly lightweight and are the preferred rollers for use on embankments or similar slopes .

Roller Features

The main characteristics of the rollers are the following:

  • These machines have a vibrating element located in the cylinder that increases the ability to compact the ground.
  • They can work both in large areas and in small areas .
  • The vibration produced by the machine is to be able to reduce the air voids and cause the densification of the granular soils .
  • During the vibration of the soil layer, the particles are rearranged by deformation of the granular soil due to the oscillation of the roller in a cycle.
  • The dynamic model of the vibration isolation system is established by using vibration isolation technology.


The first road rollers as they were known in the past were horse- drawn , and were probably used as agricultural implements from the mid-19th century. The first vehicles of this type were steam rollers and double cylinder designs were used , as single cylinder steam rollers were rare and unpopular. Some road construction companies in the United States used compactors until the 1950s, and in the UK , some remained in commercial service until the early 1970. As the technology of combustion enginesInternally improved during the 20th century, kerosene , gasoline and diesel rollers gradually replaced their steam counterparts. The first compactors of internal combustion were very similar to the rollers and used steam similar mechanisms for transmitting power from the engine to the wheels.

Some companies tried to convert steam rollers to diesel rollers and McLaren diesels were installed on some machines . Others were built by the Marshalls factory building at least one that had a diesel engine on the chassis of a steam engine . Today, most commercial rammers use diesel.


The parts that make up the roller are the following:

  • Steam engine
  • Rollers
  • Smooth wheels
  • Cylinder or drum
  • Tractor

How a roller works

The electromagnetic clutch system of the road roller works by means of the electromagnetic clutches electrically. When the clutch is actuated, current flows through the electromagnet producing a magnetic field . The rotor part of the clutch is magnetized and establishes a magnetic loop that attracts the armature. The armature is pulled against the rotor and a friction force is generated on contact . Within a relatively short time, the load is accelerated to match the rotor speed, thereby engaging the armature and the clutch output hub.

Currently, road rollers are mostly without brakes , instead their clutch systems have been modified. They are the clutch of friction or clutch rotating backwards, in which a clutch plate rotates in the opposite direction to the other, providing the braking roller machine.

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