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Sprint race

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It is important to remember that training speed is what defines the body’s ability to move . Speed ​​can be measured in meters per second . The sprinting , known in the world of sport with the name Sprint or dash in athletics is a foot race over a short distance with a burst of full or nearly full speed in which distances are usually runs ranging from 100 , 200 and 400 meters.

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What is sprinting?

sprint race consists of running on a track as fast as possible a certain distance that can be 60, 100, 200 or 400 smooth meters , where the shortest represent the fastest.

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What is the sprint race?

Sprinting in the athletics area consists of traveling as fast as possible a certain distance on an indoor track and in the open air, whether it is 100, 200 or 400 meters. Athletes who participate in this type of sport are known by the name of sprinters and their starts are performed in a semi-incorporated position on studs that work to give them momentum at the start when they hear the shot from the judge in charge.

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Characteristics

The main characteristics of the sprint race are the following:

  • There is no set height in a sprinter, but great sprinters on the track have been shown to measure between 1.65 meters and 1.90 meters.
  • The sprinter must be in harmony with his height and weight
  • Sprinters eliminate fats very badly and so they must be careful when choosing a healthy and balanced diet .
  • The sprinter is generally a powerful , strong and muscular person .
  • The glycogen is regarded as the gasoline most important brokers.

History of sprinting

The earliest known stories regarding sprinting took place in Greece and shows documented records of athletic competitions related to sprinting. In 1896, the first modern Olympic Games were held in Greece, where the first 100-meter final was run . In 1912 the International Federation of Amateur Athletics was founded and the first world record for the 100 meters was recognized with a time of 10.7 seconds.

In 1928, the first woman in the 100-meter dash made her debut at the Amsterdam Olympics.  The men’s 200-meter dash was included in the Paris Olympic program in 1900. The women’s 200-meter segment made its appearance during the London Olympics in 1948. The men’s 400-meter dash was included in the Olympic program at the Olympics from Athens in 1896.

Technique

There are several technical aspects in sprinting, these are:

  • Acceleration : this is a very important factor to achieve high speeds and to be able to make an efficient transition to maximum speed . The main objective of this technique is to increase speed by increasing the length of the stride and its frequency .
  • Maximum speed : the speed starts from the abandonment of the studs until the increase in the frequency of the stride and its length . When the stride stabilizes and the speed is achieved to reach maximum speed and acceleration stops .
  • Deceleration : there is a decrease in the frequency of the stride as neuromuscular fatigue occurs . In this phase, a type of brake occurs because the contact with the floor is in front of the projection of the center of gravity .
  • Arrival : to reach the finish line, the athlete must make a greater inclination of the body and flexion of the trunk to reach it. The best position is to bring your arms back to perform a chest landing.

Phases of the sprint race

The phases of the sprint race are as follows:

  • Initial phase : it is known as the initial block phase and in it there is the maximum level of contact time with the ground or blocks. In this phase the production of force is larger and the front leg is considered the most important startup.
  • Acceleration phase : after you move out of the blocks , you begin to accelerate by increasing the frequency and length of the steps. The length of the passage in this phase should be 30 to 50 meters. During acceleration , the time the foot is on the ground is longer to achieve high levels of force.
  • Constant speed phase : it can be sub maximum , maximum or supra maximum and the frequency and the length of the steps remain constant for a certain period of time.
  • Deceleration phase : this is the last phase and in it the speed is decreased . The frequency of the step is decreased and the length and time of contact with the ground increases.

Training

Sprinting training is primarily based on applying maximum force in a minimum period of time. Speed ​​is influenced by genetics , age or gender but can be improved and increased through training.

To train speed, we must think of a high value in the exercise we perform and we must avoid slow movements . Training should be focused on multi-joint exercises which are the main producers of strength , power and speed .

Work should be done to correct and improve the posture and movement of the legs and arms, the 45º inclination during acceleration and remember that as it decreases the inclination is reduced to less than 5º when we have reached maximum speed.

Rules

Some of the rules of sprinting are:

  • Athletes must wear clean clothing , designed and worn in a manner that is not objectionable.
  • Athletes may compete in bare feet or in footwear .
  • Sprint competitions must be conducted on a standard track , having 6 to 8 lanes.
  • The race distance is measured from the edge of the starting line to the edge of the finish line closest to the exit.
  • Before starting the race, players must be in position output and motionless .
  • The arrival of a race is signaled by a 5cm wide white line.
  • Any participant in the races who pushes another or obstructs the path may be disqualified from the event.

Categories:

The categories of the sprint race are as follows:

  • 100 meters with hurdles
  • 100 flat meters
  • 110 meters hurdles
  • 200 flat meters
  • 400 meters hurdles
  • 400 flat meters
  • Flat speed stroke
  • 4 x 100 meter relay
  • 4 x 400 meter relay

Competitions

Among the competitions that take place worldwide we can mention the World Athletics World Cup, the World Olympics that take place every four years.

Track for sprinting

The standard measure of a track is 400 meters in its innermost area, although we can find other lengths, the covered tracks are usually 200 meters. The number of lanes can be 8, 6 and 4 . The two straights that have the tracks measure 84.39 meters each and the two curves 115.61 meters each, the width of the streets is 1.22 meters and the area of the stands must always be oriented towards the east .

Clothing

Clothing to practice this sport is necessary to use comfortable , well- designed clothing that allows the athlete to move correctly. The fabric or fabric from which the clothing is made should not be transparent , not even from sweat. Also, it must have the same color on both sides. The shoes should provide protection and stability and have good adhesion to the ground.

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