Many philosophical movements originated during the 19th and 20th centuries in the world. One of them was existentialism , which focused on the study of the condition of the human being, their emotions and the commitment of the individual and freedom. It is here where Søren Kierkegaard comes in to play an extremely important role as he is considered the father of this movement .
- When was he born: 05/05/1813
- Where he was born: Copenhagen, Denmark
- When he died: 11/11/1855
- Where he died: Copenhagen, Denmark
Who was Søren Kierkegaard?
Søren Kierkegaard was a recognized and important philosopher and theologian of Danish origin , father of existentialism , a movement with which he created a philosophical framework that addressed important questions about the existence of the human being and about human subjectivity .
- Biography of Søren Kierkegaard
- Theories of Søren Kierkegaard
- Contributions from Søren Kierkegaard
Biography of Søren Kierkegaard
Søren Kierkegaard was born on 5 May of the year 1813 in the city of Copenhagen . A descendant of a very wealthy and religious family, he was educated by his father, Michael Pedersen , who was also a radical philosopher . His father took it upon himself to teach him the concept of sin and this influence caused Kierkegaard to do a great deal of charity as a young man.
His school and high school studies were carried out in a public school located in the Danish capital. He entered the Faculty of Theology in 1830 because he had promised his father before dying to become a priest. In college, he decided to study various Greek philosophers . However, he lived for a long time in internal crisis because he did not want to study theology. Despite this, he managed to get his degree in theology in 1841 .
He was engaged to Regine Olsen with whom he married on September 8 of the year 1840 . One year after this date, he broke off the engagement as he was not considered fit for marriage. He died in the city of Copenhagen in 1855 due to a crisis that kept him hospitalized for several weeks.
Many experts consider that Søren Kierkegaard’s thinking was based on faith , which had been instilled in him through his father. He thought that man could have a good relationship with himself through spirit and religion . He affirmed that the human being had a reality and that it was also related to the way of behaving in society. The center of his philosophical thought was in his belief that man lived full of anxiety and hopelessness and that the only way out of this circle was through commitment to God.
In his way of thinking, he also took despair into account and gave it importance because for him it came directly from the alienation of the self . He established various levels for despair and related it to human negativity . He also claimed that self-awareness could be awakened by choosing self in the presence of God.
Theories of Søren Kierkegaard
His theory was existentialist and in it he presented several important aspects that are even part of current philosophy . These theories were as follows:
Life-defining freedom of choice
For him, life was based on choice and he believed that it was through this process that existence could also develop.
Elections cannot be avoided
No matter what is done, decisions must always be made, even if nothing is done, as this comes as a choice.
Morality is part of freedom
All decisions are not limited to actions that can be observed as there are some of them that have a moral character. This is the reason why the human being must choose between what is fair and what only gives pleasure.
Anguish satisfies us
He mentioned that anguish always presented itself in various measures because we were always in constant choice.
By this he meant existential vertigo, since man always had the weight of freedom on his shoulders . This uncertainty caused by vertigo, made everything could be ruined.
Contributions from Søren Kierkegaard
Among the main contributions given by Søren Kierkegaard the following are mentioned:
- Reflections on language and on the ability to show reality .
- He established the type of dialectical communication and the communication of power in which the human being had a leading role.
- He made a series of contributions to personalism including the return to the person and his freedom, in the way in which the human being chose life and the communion that exists between life and thought.
- Thanks to his thought, other philosophical currents such as personalism were created .
The existentialism is a kind of philosophical analyzes the existence of human beings emphasizing especially the freedom and the responsibility of the individual processes must be analyzed independently. It was a movement that originated in the 19th century of which Søren Kierkegaard is considered its founder .
Its importance lies in the possibility offered by his message in order to experience and understand the tragedies human and to avoid giving a higher meaning to the existence of the individual. Many of his texts and teachings also show concern for the life of man , for freedom and responsibility , themes that managed to influence other important philosophers of the 20th century.
Many of Søren Kierkegaard’s works are currently used in universities that give the option of studying philosophy . His works are based on the personality of the human being and on ethics , which must be used appropriately to make decisions. Among his most important works are the following:
- Diary of a seducer : in this book, the author narrates the way in which a man makes use of his attributes to be able to conquer a cultured woman with high morals. It tells of the way in which, after waiting for her to mature, he begins to find in her the encouragement to feel good.
- Anguish : made an analysis of the concept, also comparing it with fear and despair. For him, anguish was a human feeling and in his book he affirms that men can increase their culture because they have the ability to analyze and understand its existence.
- Fear and trembling : in this work he presents a series of problems related to faith which are also related to anguish and madness. It affirms that people who have faith can have love and indicates that those who love cannot recognize the different obstacles or problems that exist in the world.
Some of Søren Kierkegaard’s most recognized phrases are mentioned below:
- The life can only be understood looking backwards but must be lived forwards.
- Life is not a problem to be solved, it is a reality to be experienced.
- The door to happiness opens inwards, it is necessary to withdraw a little to be able to open it; if it is pushed, it closes more.
- The woman thinks she is the conquered one ; the man , the winner . And despite this, the winner bows to the charm.
- The prayer can not change God, but it can change the person who prays.