Although since childhood it is usually heard in schools what social classes are , it is not until high school that the subject is truly touched, however, each school usually explains it according to the social classes of that country, that is why that to understand correctly what social classes are, they must be studied completely.
When talking about social classes, logically it contemplates the human groups in which society is made up , all this is achieved in a stratified way taking into account both the social and economic conditions that have an effect on each individual. In other words, it evaluates the condition of each human being taking into account their needs and how they adjust to them.
- What does it consist on
- Social classes according to Marx
- Social classes in the colony
- Social classes in ancient Rome
- Social classes of capitalism
- Social classes of feudalism
- Social classes by country
What does it consist on
Social classes, as their name indicates, are nothing more than a group where society is hierarchical. It is not closed but rather manages to adapt to each situation that exists within each country. At the same time, he manages to define very well the strata of a society, correctly evaluating each socio-political aspect within each individual.
The characteristics that are particular to social classes are the following:
- They have stereotyped society a lot , even to the point of being considered a totally discriminatory system against the population.
- In its beginning it was created simply to structure the total population in charge within a production area , that is, owner, boss or manager and worker.
- The social classes have adapted correctly to the political and economic systems , as well as they have adjusted to the situation of each one of them.
Studies have revealed that the first social classes were born within primitive communities, this due to the separation of the activities that each developed from the other, for example the difference between a hunter and a cook.
After these communities, the social classes were separated in order to show at a social level, the differences between the owners of the land, the men in charge of production, that is, they were in charge of producing different materials, tools, or food and the labor force which supported the means of production.
With the passage of time after the origin of social classes , each political system had to adapt its classes according to its social archetype , for example in countries like China there were dynasties, while in Japan there was a separate feudal system in lords and serfs while that in Greece the social classes were separated according to each work that a man performed or also according to his knowledge like the philosophers.
According to experts, currently social classes are models that emerged from the industrial revolution starting from the former. Although these vary according to each nation, the main ones are divided into 7 and are:
- Upper – upper class: it is one that encompasses an elite group of people who are at the top of the social pyramid, being they a great influence on a social level as well as having incalculable wealth. Some of these families have inherited and have managed to make fortune in fortune in each of their generations.
- Upper class: encompasses a group of people who are below the top within the social pyramid, being called the rich of the new generations, they are not only made up of entrepreneurs , but also highly praised specialists within the community .
- Middle – upper class: as its name indicates, it logically forms the closest of the three types of middle classes to the first of the upper class, these are made up of people with university studies without specialization, which receive a salary much higher than average.
- Middle class: makes up 100% of society between 40% and 70% in it . Although they only have high knowledge, they have quite good soil, in addition to being the owners of their houses and vehicles.
- Upper middle class: conforms to a small portion of society which only own a home, although their income is adjusted to cover all their needs, they cannot afford to waste money.
- Lower class: in general the working class is misnamed , since it is the one that obtains through hard work; cover as you can their basic needs that would be: food, housing and health.
- Lower – lower class: they are in the last rung of the social pyramid, this includes people without work or study (homeless people are included within this ) and that is why they do not have fixed housing and are in precarious conditions.
According to the philosophy of Marxism, social classes are a quite denigrating system where the only thing that is sought is that the bourgeois and capitalist who are at the top of the social pyramid, get more income and more renown by subjugating the working classes, for what they consider that unions should be established which always seek optimal conditions that have climbed within said pyramid.
When talking about social classes, these can focus on two main ones which obey a slave society. These are:
The slavers or masters
These were the men who were generally of European origin, (usually Portuguese and Spanish) who took trips to the African continent in order to buy men and take them to America to sell; as they were also in charge of enslaving the few Indians that remained after the conquests.
They were men who were forced to carry out whatever work their master determined, in turn, depending on the nation to which they were taken, they could come from one region or another. For example, while those arriving in Central America came from Central Africa , those arriving in South America came from Western America
In Rome social classes were divided , simply according to the work you were doing or the origin of the person:
- The military: This was a social class to which men entered from young adulthood and were the best paid within the work of this time. Although most of them did not reach 40 years of age.
- The kings: These generally had to be born directly from the royal lineage, when a king died, if there was no heir, a vote was chosen among the people.
- The town: It is made up as its name indicates, for all the town, it will dedicate itself to the work that it will dedicate.
- Immigrants: Those who came from other lands are not considered in any way and were not granted any rights within this society unless they came from royalty.
Within aggressive capitalism there are two social classes that are very marked within society:
The capitalist or bourgeois
These include the owners of companies , franchises, industries, commercial premises, among others. They find themselves with a totally comfortable life where they have luxuries and eccentricities for the most part, in addition to having various properties and vehicles.
The worker or proletariat
It is the sector that is the labor force in front of the different businesses of the capitalists. These can be both people with a university degree and one without study so their income within this class differs greatly from each other.
The feudal system was present in the first civilizations of the Asian countries, however, this was little by little changed by the dynastic system and later by which it is known today. The feudal classes were separated in two.
The feudal lords
These can be taken as the men at the head of the command of a nation, which was the only one who had the final word within the decisions, took control within the military forces and had in its entirety the different products that they were obtained within it to negotiate and export it.
The servants at your disposal
They were conformed by all the towns of the region which were always at the disposal of the orders of the feudal lords . Most of them were farmers , blacksmiths and artisans , in addition to the fact that the military forces (samurai) were formed in these towns
Each social class at present is faithfully linked to the politics and economy of each state, for example in Argentina the lower – lower class is almost a myth, since there is only the lower class and it is focused more than anything on people without work.
For their part, countries such as Mexico , Puerto Rico, Guatemala, find themselves with all the social classes that make up the pyramid, since the political system has sectored each social class and the economy has put people who were in a disadvantage at a disadvantage. the last levels of the pyramid.
Although many people do not know it, the social classes within a society play an important role since they speak a lot about it , for example if you see a nation which finds itself with a rate greater than 60% within the 3 types of casualties, it is understood that the country is in a state of practically extreme poverty; while if the highest rate lies in the upper average, this will translate into the economy being totally on the rise, favoring the nation.
The most vivid example found today is how social classes can change from one moment to another is that of Venezuela . This country, due to the economic crisis that it has been facing, according to scholars, since 2012 has resulted in the suppression of almost all social classes, leaving only the upper middle, the low – low and the high – high, even with the different strategies applied by the government, a nation like this that in its history had been very prosperous is currently in total ruin.