The savannah , a terrain considered as a meadow that is surrounded by isolated bushes and trees in which it can be found between a tropical jungle and a desert biome . Without having enough water to sustain the forests, the savannas are also known as tropical grasslands . They are found in a broad band on either side of the equator at the edges of tropical rain forests.
What is a savanna?
A savanna is an area that is formed by a combination of characteristics of grasslands and forests and with few trees , it is a biome with little coverage and with little density of trees.
- Characteristics of the savanna
- What is it for
- Savannah fauna
- Savannah location
- Sabana in the world
The term savanna is a word that is used to name a plain that has a great extension but that basically lacks trees. It is an ecosystem that has a low density of vegetation , and is located in subtropical or tropical regions . They are huge tracts of land, great rainfall but also a huge drought .
Characteristics of the savanna
The savannas have a warm temperature practically all year round. They have two very different stations; a very long dry season (winter), and a very wet season (summer). In the dry season only an average of about 4 inches of rain falls . Between December and February it does not rain at all. Oddly enough, it’s actually a bit cooler during this dry season. In the summer it rains abundantly. In Africa the monsoon rains begin in May. An average of 15 to 25 inches of rain falls during this entire time. It gets hot and very humidduring the rainy season. Every day, hot, humid air rises from the ground and collides with the cooler air above and turns into rain. It is common for the rains to fall for hours. African savannas have large herds grazing with hoofed animals.
There are several types of savanna among which we mention:
- Savannas of the intertropical zone : this type of savanna is classified as biomes and is generally located in the intertropical latitudes . It has a warm season, a dry season and finally a hot and rainy season.
- Temperate savannas : they are known by the name of prairies and are biomes that are located in middle latitudes . They can be found on all five continents and are areas that have wet summers and cold, dry winters.
- Mediterranean savannas : they are located in biomes that are located in mid-latitudes on the five continents. They are semi arid areas that are home to different endemic species and have plants that adapt to the climate.
- Mountainous savannas : they are located at quite high altitudes, for example in the alpine and subalpine areas . Most of them are in the mountains of Africa and on the American continent .
What is it for
Savannas are a type of environment that allows certain species of both plants and animals to develop properly. Many of them are also used as a source of income as they serve for the production and development of some types of livestock.
Most wildlife savannah have legs or wings of large to make long migrations . Many dig underground to avoid the heat or to raise their young. The savannah is a perfect place for birds of prey such as hawks and vultures thanks to the wide plains that provide them with a clear view of their prey. The animals in this place do not sweat to lose body heat.
You can find more than 40 species different from mammals with hooves living in the savannas of Africa. Up to 16 different species of animals that live with their own food preferences and that move from one place to another in the dry season . Many herbivores provide a wide range of food for carnivores , such as lions , leopards , cheetahs , jackals, and hyenas . Each species has its own preferences, which makes it possible to live side by side and not compete for food.
Plants commonly found in savannas are plants that are highly specialized to grow in this environment that includes long periods of drought . They have long roots that can reach the deep water table , thick bark to withstand annual fires, trunks that can store water, and leaves that fall during winter to conserve water. The pastures have adaptationsthat discourage animals from grazing on them; some grasses are too sharp or bitter for some animals to eat. The side benefit of this is that each species of animal has something to eat. Different species will also eat different parts of the grass. Many grasses grow from below to above , so that the growing tissue is not damaged. Many plants have also Savannah organs of storage as bulbs and corms to store water for the dry season.
The savannah can be found mainly in different parts of Africa although it is also possible to find them in some parts of North America , South America , Australia , India and Asia . They are characteristic regions of the southern hemisphere of planet earth.
The climate of the savannah itself is arid and dry . Average annual rainfall is generally 80-150 cm, although in some central continental locations it can be as low as 50 cm (20 inches). The dry season is usually longer than the wet season , but varies considerably, from 2 to 11 months.
Conditions are warm in all seasons, but significant rainfall occurs for only a few months each year, from October to March in the southern hemisphere and from April to September in the northern hemisphere . Average monthly temperatures are approximately 10 to 20 ° C in the dry season and 20 to 30 ° C in the wet season.
Because they are places that suffer from a lack of lush flora , the savannahs can give us a wide vision of their splendor. According to experts, this is one of the landscapes that allows us to observe more clearly the diversity of fauna , the surface of the land , the few trees and mountains that grow in it.
Sabana in the world
- Africa : occupies the east of the central area of Africa, has average temperatures of 23 °. It has tree species of deciduous leaves , acacias and baobabes . Antelopes, zebras, giraffes, rhinos and elephants are found in it, among others. Its climate is hot throughout the year and the rains arise in a certain annual period. One of the main savannas is the Serengeti National Park .
- America : you can find three different types of savannas, the closed ones , the chaco and the plains . The closed ones are located in the highlands of Brazil. This type of savanna has palms and legumes, the trees grow depending on the proximity of the water table .
- Mexico : in this country, the savannah develops in the tropical climate . It has rains in summer mainly to the southeast but it can also be found on the Pacific coast . Grimeas and low-rise trees predominate, many of them are practiced livestock and have two established climatic periods, one of rain and one of drought .
- Colombia : they can be found in the Orinoquia and there are trees and grasses resistant to fire and drought. Wild grasses are foundand trees shed their leaves during the dry season.
The conservation of this type of biome is based on the education that must be given to people so that they learn to make proper use of the resources that can be found in these places. Avoiding and prohibiting the hunting of endangered animals is one of the main aspects to take into consideration, as is the protection of the rest of the species to avoid reaching these extremes.
Savannas are very important because they have the enormous ability to achieve set the dioxide of carbon and act as regulators of wet and rainy years. Their ecosystems play a very important role as carbon dioxide sinks and also help to mitigate the climate . The productivity in the savannahs is higher than elsewhere because there is an opportunity to make more room in biomass .