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Romanticism

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After some calm times, full of serenity and strict monotony, there must have been a sudden change that would overwhelm the population in emotions and impulsiveness, this was not only a time, it was a movement, a trend, that marked a before and after in the history of humanity ; the romance came to lash out against all neutrality and serenity , thus filling the inhabitants of the land of dilemmas and disasters which, although not wanted, enjoyed too much.

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What is romanticism?

It is a cultural movement that originated in Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Spain , born from the rebellion to the typical, rational and everyday ; romanticism denies the perception of a reality without drama, without colors, and for a change with absurd monotony.

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What does it consist of

This cultural movement is based mostly on the breaking of all those patterns of previous times, classicism , neoclassicism and rationalism , it was born with the irreverent feverish desire of wanting to postpone all serenity, everyday life, for romanticism imperfection is the The net symbol of beauty , and the fact that ancient cultural movements were so methodical and perfectionist, led this movement to be the revolution against them.

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In its totality, romanticism in a jar of derailed and uncontrolled imperfections, impulses, feelings and emotions, irrationality dominates , it is not thought, it is acted, the reasoning for this cultural movement does not remain in the background, it remains much lower, already that at this time, everything is based on the clear expression, behaviors full of vigor embodied in various ways to convey emotions and other things that only romanticism in its time was able to do.

Origin of romanticism

Romanticism was born from the simple search for a reality that was not expressed, that is its origin expressed raw, the need to express erratic, atrophied and captivating feelings, full of passion and emotion, the need to give it that touch of liveliness and spark things that neither classicism nor neoclassicism gave to society.

Story

It emerged in Europe at the end of the 19th century , it was the first cultural movement that covered Europe in totality and in this way it expanded throughout the world, approximately between 1800 and 1850 the movement was in full swing , all cultures rooted it in order to do so. , since they were interested in the oppositionist ideology that it maintained and that desire to express in a more vivid way the realities through which a human being passes .

However, since the movement is something clearly liberal, expressive and individual . Each country and each nation for the time adapted it to itself, thus catapulting this cultural stage to a further level, projecting the same ideal and the same perception but with different tendencies, which made it extremely particular.

Countries in which it was developed

  • Germany.
  • England.
  • Spain .
  • France .
  • Colombia.
  • Argentina.
  • Cuba.
  • Chile .
  • Venezuela.
  • Italy.
  • Russia.
  • Portugal.
  • Romania.
  • Mexico .

Stages

  • Until 1825: At this stage, romanticism was more modest, it expanded timidly between those years, eager for them to accept its ideals, in 1825 what was desired was to overshadow not immediately all the old hoax about the neutrality and serenity involved. in humanity; in this period the most relevant figures were: Schlegel, De Maistre and Bonald.
  • After 1825: This stage is characterized by being more energetic and primitive, instincts, impulses and emotions take control, thus promoting an oppositional revolution , freedom was essential and the formation of one’s own values was essential.

objective

The final objective of romanticism was simple, the human being in his nature and his simplicity, developing and acting without concealment, or limitations, demonstrating and expressing everything that appeased reason; making in this way that the true personality is reflected , that a new being flourishes without fear of being judged for being imperfect.

Romanticism focused mainly on that, on self-love and love of neighbor, with its defects and virtues, its outbursts and charms.

Romanticism in art

The first paintings created in romanticism tried to focus on love towards an object, a place or a person, thus changing the perspective of the viewer, so that instead of simply observing a work of art, they would experiment on their own. skin the feeling, the emotion of that work.

After that, the artists wanted to innovate in more turbulent waters, something more controversial that flashed at sight, so what were all the tragic, real and visceral events of the time , such as wars and struggles, began to mix with romance, making the works somewhat bittersweet for the viewer.

The paintings of the artists who deviated towards this trend told stories of love and heartbreak without the need for words, even if it was tragic or nostalgic, for the spectators it was wonderful to be able to witness these emotions so precisely marked in each brushstroke.

Romanticism in literature

Romance began to appear, however, as the person was the center of attention of romanticism, the relevance of autobiographies and monologues began , historical novels appeared and gothic novels became famous, however, literature was used more in the theater field , when writing the scripts , since it was a faster way to get the message and the emotions to the public.

Romantic themes

The main themes of romanticism are:

  • Feelings and emotions.
  • The human being.
  • Imagination.
  • Nature.
  • Nostalgia.
  • Rejection and opposition to absolutist issues.
  • Individualism.
  • Beauty.
  • Imperfection.
  • Everyday items transformed into exotic.

Causes

  • Erroneous idealizations of the human being.
  • Rationalism.
  • The vague desire for perfection.
  • Monotony.
  • Stereotypes and predispositions.
  • Classism and neutrality alien to reality.

Consequences

Some consequences that romanticism had were:

  • Emotional revolution.
  • Freedom of expression.
  • It triggered the recognition of the human being as important, valuable and unique.
  • I prioritize individuality.
  • It united all cultures, and the entire population with tendencies rooted in art or creation.
  • He exposed the reality that was tried to hide under the order and neutrality of the previous movements.

Romanticism by country

England

Most of the population of England did not feel very identified with classicism, so when it came to changing their movement they did not oppose them excessively , adapting quickly thanks to this and adopting the ideals as their own. The works that were developed in England focused on landscapes and the importance of expressing emotions through it.

Germany

Although neoclassical culture and principles were rooted in Germany , a group of aesthetic-religious artists set out on the road to romanticism, applying it to works by Nazarenes, showing a genuine and pure religious love based on Christianity.

France

The neoclassicism was and l cultural movement that identified the empire , so that romanticism took a bit of time to achieve such importance, when he fell Napoleon movement emerged from the shadows, pleasing and inspiring the French population; After Napoleon the first signs of romanticism that come to light are with a historical and romantic air , however, it was not a usual romance, those works reflected a romance in a desperate, devastated and abandoned wasteland; for which he transmitted too much nostalgia when admiring himself.

Spain

Spain follows the social flows and the first signs that are seen in the country of romanticism are works of art mixed between history and the cultural movement, only that the artists instead of doing the tragic historical fact , added subtlety to it in a slight way by applying the romanticism.

Representatives

Among the many representatives of romanticism we highlight:

  • Caspar David Friedrich
  • Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes
  • Jose Mallord Guillermo Turner
  • John constable
  • William blake
  • Eugene Delacroix
  • Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault
  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  • Friedrich Schiller
  • Edgar Allan Poe
  • Victor Hugo
  • Lord byron
  • Walter scott
  • Gustavo Adolfo Becquer
  • Esteban Echeverria
  • Juan Antonio Pérez Bonalde

Plays

Among the most outstanding works of romanticism we highlight:

  • Witches going to the sabbath, Luis Ricardo Falero.
  • The burial of the sardine, Francisco de Goya.
  • The storm , Gustave Courbet.
  • Satire of romantic suicide, Leonardo Alenza.
  • Sappho de lesbas, Charles Mengin.
  • The Raft of the Medusa, Théodore Géricault.
  • Liberty leading the people, Delacroix.
  • The Wayfarer on the Sea of ​​Clouds, David Friedrich.
  • The nightmare, Heinrich Füssli.
  • Rain , Steam and Speed, William Turner.
  • Snowstorm at Sea, William Turner.
  • The hay cart, John Constable.
  • Ophelia, John Everett Millais.
  • Venus anadiomene del Prado, Antonio María Esquivel.

Books

  • Don Juan Tenorio, José Zorrilla.
  • The student from Salamanca, José de Espronceda.
  • The roots of romanticism, Isaiah Berlin.
  • Romanticism in Castilian poetry, Cesar Vallejo.
  • Don Quixote de la mancha, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra.
  • The song of the pirate, José de Espronceda.
  • The Sorrows of Young Werther, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
  • Hernani, Victor Hugo.
  • The wretches, Victor Hugo.
  • Wuthering Heights, Emily Brönte.
  • Ivanhoe, Walter Scott.
  • The Pilgrimages of Childe Harold, Lord Byron.

Importance

The simple fact that romanticism took place, lit a spark in all humanity , which was previously appeased by all that reasoning to which the population was accustomed , however, this cultural movement stirs everything, giving a complete turn to the sense of life, without this revolution in favor of the expression of emotions and the freedom of being itself, the population would not have a fully rooted identity and would continue to be chained to customs and antiquated neutrality.

In addition to this, romanticism was a propellant for the performing arts and theater, therefore these art manifestations would not be appreciated today.

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