Roman architecture


There are many ways in which man can capture art , one of these ways although it is not usually appreciated as art is through architecture, in it its designers or architects create forms and structures that end up converging in beautiful giant and habitable pieces .


What is Roman architecture?

The Roman architecture is at present one of the basic guidelines of what is known as architecture , this gave life to cities through useful and practical structures , but above all very picturesque.


What does it consist of

Roman architecture was characterized mainly by its large arches and columns or pillars, in turn I also include within its forms and styles , a concrete made by the Romans to reinforce, and new technologies to reinforce structures such as the dome, the archway and vault .


Characteristics of Roman architecture

Among the main characteristics are:

  • It is monumentalized both for its large sizes as well as for what it means in history.
  • Although it is an ostentatious architecture, it is still totally utilitarian and practical.
  • I manage to use artistic elements in a practical way such as vaults and arches.


The Roman architecture converge from two different sources, in the beginning of the Etruscan and later the Greeks , mostly after the Punic Wars , being in this nation where the first public pathway is created under the concepts that are currently known and the first aqueduct which connected a large part of the cities.


The history of Roman architecture is divided into the following periods :

  • Period of the Republic: S. VI (around 510 BC) – 27 BC
  • Augustus Period: The Classical Age: 27 BC – 14 AD
  • Imperial period: divided into:
    • From Tiberius to Trajan : 14 – 117
    • From Hadrian to Alexander Severus: 117 – 235
    • From Maximinus to Constantine: 235 – 315


Roman architecture is made up of two main elements:

  • The upper structures are made up of domes on the ceilings and arches that separate the rooms or rooms.
  • The  fundamental structures or structures where the ceilings are located are made up of walls covered by materials such as marble , as well as large ornate pillars in their upper parts.

Materials of Roman architecture

Among the most used materials in Roman constructions are:

  • The stone : it was the first material used , which was molded with a hammer and chisel.
  • marble: It was used in principle as a coating but later used in a decorative way .
  • Roman brick : it was the basis of their constructions but it was always covered by another material.
  • Roman concrete: it is the main material that supports both the large pillars and the arches.
  • The stucco : It was used to cover the roof of the buildings and in some cases the walls .


The arches make up an extremely important piece in Roman architecture, they are visible not only on the outside of the buildings as it is in the Roman Coliseum, but also inside the buildings, in some cases they were called ” Los arches of triumph ”.


The columns are one of the most predominant elements of this style of architecture, they are broken down into:

  • Order Tuscan or Etruscan .
  • Of Roman Doric order .
  • Of Roman Ionic order .
  • Of Corinthian Roman order .
  • Of compound order .
  • Referring to the order as the ornamentation or decorations that are made to the columns of this style.


One of the most important structures in Rome was the basilicas , where people attended to carry out various procedures, both legal and commercial , and in some cases they were used for ceremonial events . These are made up by large plants square with ships both central and lateral and gantries medium .


Within Roman society , temples were of utmost importance to the point of becoming one of the two main traditions throughout the world . In turn, it was established that the High Pontiff would have as much power as the emperor , so temples were built consisting of large domes and vaults with large open areas to perform the various rituals.

Roman civil architecture

Apart from the military and political structures , Roman society decided to create large structures that were at the total disposal of civil society , from large pantheons and bookstores as well as coliseums to which people attended to see different acts such as fights. of gladiators . These were generally open in its entirety but it was made up of a series of arches and columns which made up its total structure.

Ancient roman architecture

The Roman architecture is based on the Greek developments, and the two together were established as a fundamental pillar for Etruscan . Its main objective was to adapt to the diverse needs of society , so at first it did not place so much emphasis on minor details but it showed its most outstanding characteristics in a simple way.

Roman funerary architecture

In general terms , funeral works in Rome are born from the Etruscan , however, with the passing of time this little by little became more complex and eccentric in his work . Although they generally are found at outskirts of towns they not often lacked any details .


The Roman architecture way to be of great importance because it had great contributions in what is now known as the basic architecture, initially was expanded throughout Europe as it is in the case of the arch of triumph in Paris, but later came to the American continent being the Capitol of the United States .

Representatives of Roman architecture

Among the most outstanding architects are:

  • Septimius Servero.
  • Saur.
  • Batraco.
  • Patroclus .
  • Horacio.
  • Vitruvian.
  • August
  • Suetonius.
  • Alatri.
  • Plutarch .

Outstanding works

Among his most outstanding works are:

  • The Vatican Obelisk .
  • The Arch of Trajan .
  • La Casa Di Diana .
  • The temple of Portuno .
  • The Amphitheater of Arles .
  • The pantheon of Agrippa .
  • The Arch of Titus .
  • The Ara Pacis .
  • The Basilica of Maxentius .

Other examples

Among the most relevant examples are:

  • The Mausoleum of Theodoric.
  • The Pantheon of Agrippa.
  • The Opus sectile.
  • The Temple of Hercules Victor.
  • The Basilica Ulpia.
  • The Etruscan temple of Alatri.

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