Respiratory apparatus


The human respiratory system consists of a series of organs responsible for receiving oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide from the human body, a waste product that can be lethal if it accumulates in the body. The primary organs of the respiratory system are the lungs , and they are responsible for carrying out this exchange of gases as we breathe. In humans, the average rate of respiration depends on age.


What is the respiratory system?

The respiratory system is responsible for providing oxygen to the body and eliminating the carbon dioxide produced by cells during respiration, which extracts oxygen from the inspired air and expels waste gases when this air is exhaled .

  • features
  • What is the function of the respiratory system
  • Parties
  • How the respiratory system works
  • Diseases
  • Importance


The main characteristics of the respiratory system are the following:

  • Provides oxygen to the cells of the human body through respiration.
  • It is a very vulnerable system to infections and air pollutants .
  • It is made up of the airways and the lungs .
  • Allows phonation .
  • Cleanses the blood of pharmacological compounds .
  • Perform gas exchange .
  • The human respiratory system takes approximately 000 breaths per day.
  • They have adaptability since they exchange air.
  • It has elasticity and surface tension .

What is the function of the respiratory system

The functions of the respiratory system are various, all of them very important. It is responsible for carrying out the gas exchange between the alveoli and the blood, conditioning the air in the lungs and regulating the pH of the blood . It acts as a means of elimination of substances that are harmful to health and also allow phonation .


The parts of the respiratory system are as follows:

  • Nose : it is the place where the air from outside enters the respiratory system through the nostrils where it is filtered, cleaning it of large particles. It has blood vessels that radiate heat causing the air that is inhaled to reach a temperature of about 25ºC, thus preventing the air from reaching the lungs excessively cold.
  • Pharynx : the pharynx is an organ that belongs to both the digestive system and the respiratory system .
  • Larynx : in it are the vocal cords , responsible for the voice. It is partially covered by the epiglottis , which prevents food from entering the airways when we feed.
  • Trachea : it is a tube of about 12cm in length, located in front of the esophagus. It is lined by a large number of cilia that help expel any dust that may have passed into the pharynx. In its final portion, it is divided into two branches called bronchi , made up of cartilaginous rings with the same characteristics.
  • Bronchi, Bronchioles, and Alveoli : The bronchi are divided into thinner branches called bronchioles . Each bronchiole forms dozens of sachets called pulmonary alveoli that are lined with blood vessels through which gas exchange occurs .
  • Lungs : they are two reddish spongy organs, located in the thorax , on both sides of the heart and which are protected by the ribs . The right lung is divided into three different fragments, while the left lung , which is smaller, is only divided into two, since it has to share the space of the left hemithorax with the heart.

How the respiratory system works

Air first enters the body through the nose or mouth and then travels through the larynx down the windpipe . The trachea is divided into two bronchial tubes that enter the lungs. When the air enters the cilia , bristles having the pathways respiratory are responsible for trapping the seeds and particles harmful when breathed entering.

When inhale the air diaphragm moves down by increasing the volume of the cavity torá cycad causing the air to flow into the lungs . During exhalation , the diaphragm moves upward and the muscles in the chest wall relax causing the chest cavity to narrow , air pressure in the lungs increases, and air rises out of the respiratory system through the nose and mouth.


Diseases of the respiratory system are divided into two categories: viruses , such as influenza, bacterial pneumonia; and chronic diseases , such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

  • COPD : is the union of three related conditions: chronic bronchitis , chronic asthma and emphysema . It is a progressive disease that affects the lungs and makes it increasingly difficult for those who suffer from it to breathe.
  • Asthma : is a chronic inflammation of the airways that causes coughing, wheezing, tightness in the chest, or shortness of breath. These signs and symptoms are made worse when a person is exposed to their triggers , which can include air pollution , tobacco smoke, factory fumes, cleaning solvents, infections, pollens, food, cold air, exercise, chemicals, and medications.
  • Lung cancer : It is associated with smoking , but this is not exclusive. Every year, thousands of people die from lung cancer, even though they have never smoked.


The respiratory system is of the utmost importance for life because without it we could not breathe . Through it, the air we inhale is improved to prevent a series of pollutants from entering our body. In addition, it is the main defense mechanism that the human body has against carbon dioxide, through gas exchange that allows us to acquire oxygen from the environment.

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