One of the most recognized politicians who have passed for the presidential chair of Peru is without a doubt Ramón Castilla . A politician who was born within the Viceroyalty of Peru when it was still under the rule of Spain . He even fought alongside Simón Bolívar and San Martín and after having achieved independence, he dedicated himself to participating in various wars and revolutions.
- When was he born: 08/31/1797
- Where he was born: San Lorenzo, Peru
- When he died: 05/30/1867
- Where he died: Tilviche, Peru
Who was Ramón Castilla?
Ramón Castilla was an important politician and military man from Peru who managed to be president of the Republic on two different occasions. A renowned statesman who managed to move his country forward thanks to an important period of prosperity in the economy .
- What did
- Biography of Ramón Castilla
- Military career
- Political career
- First government of Ramón Castilla
- Second government
- Abolition of slavery
- What study
- Contributions of Ramón Castilla
- Physical characteristics
- Works by Ramón Castilla
Ramón Castilla was an important president of Peru who managed with his hard work to promote the liberation of slaves , implement freedom of the press and was able to abolish and completely eliminate the indigenous tribute . Considered one of the first progressive and innovative presidents of the country, it was through him that the republican period was started . He was the one who managed to recognize Afro-Peruvians as true citizens of the country and managed to promote the proper development of thePeruvian Amazon .
Biography of Ramón Castilla
Ramón Castilla y Marquesado was born on August 31, 1797 in a city called San Lorenzo located in Tarapacá . Since he was little, he dedicated himself to helping his father cut wood and when he was ten years old he traveled to Lima to study under the care of his brother. His military career began when he was quite young alongside the royalist army and he was even a prisoner in Buenos Aires. Little by little he was introduced in the field of politics and managed to occupy several important positions that eventually led him to occupy the presidency of the country .
His death happened in Tilviche , a town located in Peru one day May 30 of the year 1867 .
His life in the military field began with his brother, with whom he joined the royalist army in 1812 when he was only 15 years old. He was participating in several combats against the Chilean Old Homeland and after defeating the insurgents in Castilla, he reached the title of cadet . He continued as a member of the colonial army and was captured when he was 20 years old during the Battle of Chacabuco .
After escaping from prison, he returned to join the royalist army and in 1820 he became part of the Union Dragoons regiment in Arequipa . Then, in 1822 , he began working for the Hussars of the Peruvian Legion . In 1824 he was able to join the army of Simón Bolívar where he played a very important role in the Battle of Ayacucho , a struggle for Peruvian independence.
His political career began in 1825 , at which time he held one of the first public positions. Later, while José de la Mar was as president, he was sent to Arequipa. In 1830 he was sent to Lima where he was appointed as aide-de-camp and then he traveled to Cuzco where, after ending the insurrection, he was appointed as Head of State . After the war ended, he was appointed as Minister General and later as Minister of War and Finance .
First government of Ramón Castilla
His first government began in 1845 and he was the first ruler to end the entire six-year term established by the Constitution. In this first government, the country was very disorganized due to the struggles and the economy, although not entirely good, could be recovered. He called this stage of his mandate ” false prosperity ” because the income he was able to obtain thanks to the sale of bird droppings managed to increase the budget incredibly .
In the international field, Ramón Castilla managed to join the Monroe doctrine , opened delegations in several countries and also consulates in Europe , Asia and America . He created the Central School of the Navy in Bellavista and the Military College in the same place. He bought the first steamship in Peru and in all of South America. He also built the Lima-Callao railway , built the Central Market of Lima and a drinking water installation .
In his second government he managed to have two important constitutions promulgated , the first in 1856 of a liberal court and the second in 1860 of a more moderate nature . During his government there was a war with Ecuador which ended with the signing of the Treaty of Mapsingue . He helped Nicaragua and Costa Rica to fight against William Walker , made the plans of Gabriel García Moreno , president of Ecuador, fail and sent diplomatic aid to fight against the intervention of France in Mexico. He carried out the first General Census of the Republic , established municipal regimes and inaugurated the Lima Penitentiary .
Abolition of slavery
Ramón Castilla decreed the total abolition of the indigenous tribute on July 5, 1854 after defeating Echenique during the Battle of Izcuchaca . Then he moved to Huancayo where he dictated the total abolition of slavery in Peru on December 5, 1854.
When he was 10 years old, he moved to live next to his brother in Lima with the aim of studying.
His ideology focused on the radical liberal movement that sought to achieve institutional stability and order in the country’s economy. He attached importance to both intellectual and material progress and was based on the idea of creating a kind of republican heyday . The order but without having to reach arbitrariness were always part of his ideas as well as the national union.
Contributions of Ramón Castilla
Among his main contributions are the following:
- He managed to build many churches , hospitals , roads and bridges throughout the Republic of Peru.
- His Americanist policy in the international arena was inspired by a feeling of unity and solidarity.
- He was able to create several spark plug , sulfuric acid and paper companies .
- It implemented the first electric loom that existed in the country, thus starting the manufacture of cotton fabrics .
- He managed to pay the internal and external debt of Peru.
- He reorganized the entire postal system .
- He was in charge of founding the country’s diplomatic service and also established a state budget.
- He modernized the army and also the naval force of Peru.
- Construction of the first Peruvian railway began in 1851.
- He managed to free the slaves and officially decreed the recognition of Afro-Peruvians as true citizens.
- He created the law on freedom of the press , which favored the media.
Ramón Castilla was a man of short stature , he had very good physical stamina and a penetrating gaze. His hair was colored black and straight , used a mustache quite long and his eyes were small.
His personality was always full of energy , he was a man very resistant to the blows of life and his gaze was penetrating. He was brave and very fast when in battle and they had a good level of intuition . He was a very mature man and had a good tact in dealing with those around him. His personality was also quite liberal but at the same time he was implacable with those he considered as enemies .
His father was named Pedro Castilla and his mother Juana Marquesado y Romero .
He married Francisca Diez-Canseco y Corbacho , an important sister of Presidents Pedro and Francisco Diez.
With his wife he had no children but nevertheless, he managed to have three children, the first named Manuel Castilla , a son who had been born as a result of a sentimental relationship with María de Cárdenas Rivera. He had another son whom he named Federico Castilla as a result of his relationships as Francisca Villegas and then Juan Castilla was born , from a relationship he had with a woman named Carolina Colichón.
Ramón Castilla is considered one of the most important presidents because he was the man who finally managed to free the slaves , improve the freedom of the press and because he was able to abolish the indigenous tribute . Thanks to him and his work, the country managed to cancel both internal and external debt, notably improving the economy of his country. With him, the Peruvian republican period began and he founded a series of important institutions that positively intervened in the development of the nation. He created factories, churches, hospitals, roads, and bridges.
Works by Ramón Castilla
Some of his important works were the following:
- Guano export began with the consignment system.
- It paid the foreign debt to Argentina , Chile , Colombia , the United States and England.
- He created the Consolidation Law to pay the internal debt.
- It applied the first budget of the Republic.
- Unveiled the Chinese Immigration Law .
- He summoned and met the first American Congress in Lima to coordinate the continental defense.
- Acquired the first steam warship: the Rímac.
A Mausoleum of the Marshal was made which was engraved with a legend that says “Peru to the Great Marshal Ramón Castilla” . A commemorative plaque was also presented at the Castile monument. One of the first monuments that was erected in the country to celebrate the history of Ramón Castilla was in 1967 and is located in Plaza Unión. A second monument was inaugurated in 1969.
There are no data on many phrases that have been pronounced by Ramón Castilla, however, it is known that he said: “ we have not come to run ”, a phrase that served as motivation for restaurateurs during the Battle of Yungay.
Some curiosities of President Ramón Castilla are mentioned below:
- Thanks to the fact that his mandate coincided with the boom of guano , he was able to pay the foreign and internal debt of his country with it.
- He is considered as the president who managed to establish the foundation of the republican period in the country.