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What are psychomotor skills?

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For many people, the arrival of a child in a family is a blessing, and when they are taken for the first time to a doctor, teacher or a specialist, they usually use certain terminologies that, although the parents do not understand, they usually talk about very important aspects. Thanks to the Internet era, many parents have sought support on the Internet to understand all these terminologies, in order to understand what specialists are talking about and in turn to help or contribute to the training of their children, finding themselves as themes and concepts such as cognitive behavioral development or psychomotor skills.

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What are psychomotor skills?

Psychomotor skills are a fairly unknown term in today’s society . This refers to a disciplinary activity where everything is based on the work of the complete development of an individual, all this starting from the knowledge of their body and their movements. It is performed through an intervention which is directed both to a healthy individual as well as one who suffers any type of special condition , thus fulfilling not only an improvement within their educational areas but also at the level of personal training and even in cases where there are disorders, fulfilling a role of therapy.

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Definition

The psychomotor is defined and shaped by himself, taking into account the linguistic analysis in the intervening and evaluating their dual construct; as a Cartesian duality where the mind is established in direct correlation with the body, one being able to support the other.

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In it, it is left between seeing a union between the psychic area and the area in charge of motor skills , but at the same time it is not more than a simple relationship but although it seems something simple and logical, it is much more complex.

What is psychomotor skills for?

If we establish by points the main areas in which psychomotor activity acts, we will have the following list with the most outstanding:

Provides the individual with a total and real conception of their body, including its control

This is nothing more than the total knowledge that this activity provides the individual with respect to their body , representing an important element within children when it is taken as a learning tool.

Total dominance of laterality

If there is one of the aspects that although it seems incredible, it is more difficult for him to master the human being is to know in simple words his dexterity, that is, if he works with the left or right hand. This tool being an important support for its development.

Control of balance and in turn of movements

This includes two points in which this activity is strengthened and is to provide the individual not only with the ability to be able to find himself in a stable way in any position without the need for ” special movements “, but also to perform the various movements of his body without expense. excessive energy and in turn to execute it without any problem.

Characteristics

Its most outstanding characteristic is that this activity is carried out in children, more specifically within their training , being applied within schools and in turn by specialists and tutors in order to avoid future problems in everything that their education includes. growth. Starting from this point, this education is characterized by:

  • Provide a complete knowledge to the child of what his body is and in turn teach the child all the actions he can perform with it.
  • Make the child aware of both what an active posture represents , as well as a passive one and everything that represents fatigue at the muscular level in their body.
  • Allow the child to discover everything that represents on a sensory level the relationship that exists between his body and the environment that surrounds him.
  • Supports and reinforces all motor areas in which the child has problems with the development of certain activities where skill is involved.

Source

The first vestiges of what we know today as psychomotricity date back to the early twentieth century, being a neurologist named Ernest Dupre who establishes in some way the close relationship that exists between the different abnormalities that occur at a neurological and also psychic level with respect to to motor activities in the human being.

Ernest carries out various research projects where the term Psychomotor conspires . It delves into the different disorders or problems that affected the full development of the psychomotor area, establishing motor weakness as one of the main ones. But it is not until neuropsychiatry where the whole term is really deepened, thus developing its bases.

History

After the coining of the term and the establishment of its first theoretical bases within child neuropsychiatry, it is the psychologist and researcher Henri Walton who was of French origin, who formalizes the term within psychology , he in turn establishes the importance of this area within the formation of the child for the development of his full life.

Due to the relevance that this term was taking within psychology , the first school of psychomotor skills was created within the Henri Rouselle Hospital, directed by the psychologist Julián de Ajuriaguerra, in which the first patients began to be attended on a large scale, thus helping to further strengthen theories or also deny them.

Elements of psychomotor skills

Among the main elements that are worked on in a psychomotor room we find:

  • A body scheme.
  • A body image.
  • Muscle tonality.
  • Control of breathing
  • Relaxation methods.
  • Rhythm coordination methods.
  • Strengthening of motor skills
  • Mastery of the ares or parts of the body.
  • Development of creativity .
  • Knowledge of the spatial and temporal structure.
  • Control of laterality.
  • Domain within the coordination of movements.

Types

Among the types of psychomotor skills we find:

Gross motor skills

They include all those movements that within the term are considered ” rough “, that is, they use a large part of the body, for example: running, dancing or playing with a ball.

Fine motor skills

It corresponds to all those tasks that they carry out with the most ” delicate ” parts of the body, such as the hands and fingers and also the feet . For example: finger painting, shaping something, digging in the garden.

Vasomotor motor skills

In this area, as its name indicates, it combines the movements of the body , when these are produced by the sense of sight. For example: insert a cube into a box where the square area is observed , where to insert it.

Audio motor motor skills

In this area, as its name indicates, it combines the movements that the body performs, when these are produced by all those perceived sounds. For example: when a child runs out to hear a noise that frightens him.

Interoceptive motor development

It is closely linked to all those sensations that the body generates internally , such as agitation or increased heart rate.

Proprioceptive motor development

It is closely linked to all those sensations that the body generates at the level of the muscles and their joints, such as discomfort in the knees or in the neck.

Steroceptive motor development

It includes all those sensations that are linked to the senses of the human body , logically with respect to the body , such as when an unpleasant smell is perceived and the nose moves as a sign of displeasure.

Stages

As is logical, the body of the human being is united with the psyche in an inseparable way, that is why it can be observed in the human being, the beginning of the development of the area of ​​the psyche in conjunction with the motor according to the age of the boy. This can be better understood when looking at the child’s evolution within this area:

  • The first stage, which includes from birth to 7 years, is the most important part within the framework of psychomotor development, because it is at this time that the most primitive features of children are refined with respect to all their movements.
  • In the second stage, which includes from 7 to 10 years old , the child must have already stylized everything regarding the area of ​​his body, the movements that comprise it, and so on. That is why, at this stage, the child seeks to project himself into the future, due to the fact that he already tries to dress himself and perform various domestic tasks.
  • The third and last stage in psychomotor development is from 10 to 14 years old , and their body begins to develop as a whole in reference to its “final” dimensions, this being a stage where some pre-adolescents have various difficulties with respect to reflexes and physical coordination .

Psychomotor activities

The main responsible for the correct development of the psychomotor area within the child’s evolution are the education centers, which in most countries are clearly obliged to carry out activities in order to work in this area. However, more and more parents decide to contribute to the correct growth and development of this part of their children’s lives .

Although it is true that the most correct thing is to go to a specialist , on the internet you can find various activities that have this purpose as their objective. Some of them may be.

Take an hour of the day ( if possible after rest and digestion of lunch ) and place on any device a video of an animal that performs certain physical activities such as frogs , and stand next to the child to jump like her .

This will help strengthen certain areas such as the association of what you see with physical movements and will also help your coordination.

Fine motor skills

Within the area of psychomotricity there are two really relevant aspects, one of them is gross motor skills and the other is fine . This is responsible within the child to develop correctly all those activities that are carried out with the hands and feet. For example: coloring a drawing without leaving the margins, writing its name correctly and legibly, among others.

This is undoubtedly one of the most worked areas within it in schools and colleges , since although in some children it develops much faster in others it develops more slowly, and if it is not given due attention during the stage that comprises the formation of this part, can take it to the next stages of development and even never correct it.

Gross motor skills

Just as fine motor skills are one of the most relevant aspects, gross motor skills are also relevant, however, while one is quite worked, this is not so. This is because gross motor skills developed almost naturally in his daily life .

Although this does not mean that study and training centers cover it, but on the contrary, they seek to strengthen it through activities that not only strengthen their motor area, but also help them to relate within a social environment. The most used are dance activities, or others that seek to entertain children with objects but strengthening their various areas, such as playing with a balloon and preventing it from falling to the ground.

Profits

The real and true benefit that a child develops correctly on a psychomotor level is nothing more than the fact that he has a full and calm life with respect to this area. In other words, seen from the parents  position, “there is nothing that makes a parent happier than seeing their son or daughter doing any outdoor activity without any problem.”

And all this is achieved within an adequate space for a true and correct development of this area in the child. Although psychomotorists talk about what should be an optimal environment for its development , many others think that what is really important is the activities that are applied.

Examples

Among the various types of psychomotor schools that we can find are:

Educational psychomotor practices

They are the most common and it is where the entire psychomotor system is strengthened through entertaining activities for children such as jumping or playing with certain objects.

Aquatic psychomotor practices

It is used most of all in the newborn stages in the child, making use of water to stimulate his entire motor area.

Psychomotor Help Practices

These are carried out mainly with a therapeutic purpose within specialized centers in children who have problems to finish developing these areas.

Importance

Thanks to new technologies that come onto the market every day, parents and both educational and training systems can use various tools in order to improve and create better plans to meet their objectives, in this case the correct development of psychomotor skills in children.

In turn, the children in the future , when they acquire a certain maturity, will end up thanking their parents and guardians for having contributed in those areas of their life since it allows them to lead their life fully.

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