processor or microprocessor is the  “brain” of a computer system . It controls the operation of all hardware and software , and is also called Central Processing Unit or CPU .

What is a processor?

It is the most important unit within a computer system or computer and is responsible for processing the unique set of instructions and processes . It is the hardware device known as the brain of the system.

There are many processors available, and specifying them is often one of the first things considered when purchasing a new personal computer . The type of processor and its speed have the biggest impact on the overall performance of a computer system. Its performance is directly related to its operating speed and its architecture.

A microprocessor is designed to perform logical tasks and computational with typical operations such as addition / subtraction, interprocess and communication of the device, management input / output, etc.

  • Processor Features
  • What is the processor for
  • Story
  • How does it work
  • Types
  • Processor speed
  • Architecture

Processor Features

The most notable characteristics of the processors are mentioned below:

  • It is composed of registers , control unit, arithmetic unit .
  • It is composed of the nucleus that is responsible for making the computer perform processes with greater speed , fluidity and optimization of times.
  • The cores are contained in a physical unit , but they are actually individual processors.
  • It has cache memory , which implies the ability to increase the performance of the applications that are installed on the computer. Speeds up RAM and hard drive .
  • The faster the processor has the instructions will be carried out with greater speed.
  • Processors that include two cores are called dual-core processors , while those with four cores are called quad- core processors .
  • The CPU now often include multiple processing cores working together to process instructions.

What is the processor for

A processor, or “microprocessor,” is a small chip that we can find in computers and other electronic devices. Its main function is to receive information and provide the appropriate result.

It is in charge of handling all the basic instructions of the system, such as the processing of input applications and mouse and keyboard execution. Most desktop computers contain a CPU developed by Intel or AMD, both of which use the x86 processor architecture. Mobile devices, such as laptops and tablets, can use Intel and AMD CPUs, but they can also use specific mobile processors developed by companies such as ARM or Apple.

The processor is the part of a PC that acts as the brain of the computer, runs programs, sends and receives signals to connected devices to keep the computer running. Whether you use your computer or mobile device to send emails, take pictures, post online, or surf the Internet, the processor is in charge of handling all the data and running all the programs that allow it to carry out these tasks.


Processors have a history dating back to 1971 when the first microprocessor available on the market, the Intel 4004 , emerged . Since then, technology has improved by leaps and bounds. The history of the processor begins with the Intel 8086 that was chosen by IBM for its first PC. The background to the history of the processor is as follows:

  • The computer with a multi-cycle wired programming processor was born and its memory had only the data, but no programs.
  • EDVAC or Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer emerged, which was the first Von Neumann machine, it contained data and programs within the same memory.
  • The IBM 7030 emerged as the first computer to contain a segmented processor. Since that time, segmentation has been a fundamental part of Computer Architecture .
  • The IBM 360/91 took a huge step forward in segmented architecture and introduced dynamic memory risk detection .
  • The CDC 6600 was considered the first supercomputer.
  • John Cocke created super scalar segmentation , which consisted of executing many instructions at the same time on the same microprocessor. The first super scalar processors were the IBM Power-1.

How does it work

Remember that a processor is an electronic component that is responsible for processing all the information that our computer or our mobile device has. It can be said that it is the brain that is responsible for making everything work well.

It is made up of silicon and millions of transistors , which are the components that can be turned on and off by means of the electrical impulses they receive . These transistors, which are called bits  and have values ​​from 1 to 0, are distributed in internal circuits that are designed to carry out different mathematical operations . At the same time, these form complex circuits giving composition to the processor.

They also have a motherboard or socket that is responsible for the connection between the computer and the devices


Some types of processors are as follows:

  • Atom-type processors: they  have low energy consumption and are created for netbooks and other specialized network devices.
  • Celeron : they are used in desktop computers or desktop PCs for family use and web browsing.
  • Pentium: These  are dual-core processors for desktop computers.
  • Core processors: they  have more than one core, which is called Core, and they are used in larger processing, such as banks, finance companies, accounting firms, and companies.

We can also find single, two, three, and multicore processors.

Processor speed

Speed ​​is measured in mega Hertz and giga Hertz . The internal clock speed of the processor that determines how fast it can process data is measured in gigahertz (GHz) or billions of cycles per second.


The way in which the internal blocks are interconnected is known as the processor architecture. All processors have different architectures, so the function speed is not the same.

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