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Postmodernism

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The Postmodernism also known by the name of postmodernity is a rather broad concept that usually refers to a trend that is related to the culture , the art and philosophy that emerged at the end of the twentieth century. Generally, experts on the subject refer to everything that is postmodern as things that are related and associated with the cult of individuality , the absence of interest in the common welfare and a rejection of rationalism.

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What is postmodernism?

It is a trend that can be seen as a reaction against the ideas and values that modernism had , as well as a description of the period after the predominance of modernism in cultural theory and practice in the first decades of the 20th century.

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What does it consist of

Postmodernism was a reaction emerged against of the modernism . It consists of everything that was later given to the modern . It includes a series of details from previous works, recycles techniques , ideologies and themes of different movements from a current aesthetic point of view . It is a reflection of society itself, and is based on a great diversity of options. It can also be described as a set of critical , strategic and rhetorical practices that use concepts as difference ,repetition , trace , simulacrum and hyper-reality to destabilize other concepts such as presence, identity, historical progress, epistemic certainty of meaning.

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Characteristics of postmodernism

The main characteristics that we can observe in postmodernism are the following:

  • It was a time when constant criticism was made against modernity .
  • Stories about Christ , Marxists , Enlightenment, and capitalism are considered dead .
  • It was based on the dual idea as the true conception of the world .
  • The authors of the texts were considered not neutral .
  • There was an excess of information on the part of the mass media.
  • Television is consolidated as the means of communication par excellence.
  • The language is considered responsible for shaping the personality of people.
  • There was no absolute or immovable truth .
  • The message that society had was to worship the body before anything else.
  • You only thought about the present.

Story

Starting in 1910, new artistic experiences began to appear throughout Europe in search of various aesthetic responses regarding a context of spiritual crisis , which was known at that time as the origin of the avant-gardes . According to history, postmodernity became more popular from the publication on The Postmodern Condition by Jean-François Lyotard in 1979 and after two world wars , this postmodern theory began to circulate in the West, thus excluding many ideologies old and giving way to a greater sense of reality and human experiences. Experts consider that the fall of the Berlin Wall was the universal trigger that symbolized the failure and death of modernism and the birth of postmodernism.

Postmodernism in art

It was an art that went beyond the cultural , political and economic roots of the contemporary age , marked culturally by the Enlightenment , politically by the French Revolution and economically by the Industrial Revolution.  It was characterized by eclecticism , mystification and deconstruction , classic methods and styles of the past were used again, the artist was free to capture his works based on any era or style . Classical art is used andmainly avant-garde and mix traditional art with graffiti , comics and advertising images .

Postmodernism in literature

The term refers to the literature that emerged after the Second World War , and that was characterized by being different from the previous literature. As in other areas, the postmodern denies the modern , and believes that the modern will fail so it sets new rules . Postmodern literature has different styles and genres that emerged during the second half of the 20th century. It is a literature that breaks with the narrative structures of realism , but that emphasizes the individuality and subjectivity of the mind, key elements of themodernism and the avant-garde.

This type of literature started from a double negation . Modernist optimism is renounced and the enlightened belief – inherited from realism and modernism – that they thought that reason could explain everything that happened in the universe is ignored.

Postmodernism in architecture

Postmodern architecture is known as an architectural movement of the year 1950 although it became known in the year 1970 . It shows influences today in various artistic styles and it can be said that it arose as the return of ornament and ingenuity in architecture. It was used in an opposite way to the formalism of the modern current . Its main objective was to seek solutions to the problems posed by modernism in terms of communication and construction contexts .

They also used ornaments , sculptural forms , materials and anthropomorphism , irony, pluralism , paradox, very high ceilings and contextualisms .

Philosophical postmodernism

One of the main themes of postmodern philosophy is the denial of universal and objective truth . One of the most important parts is the famous statement by Jean-Francois Lyotard known as disbelief towards the macro story. For postmodernists, there is no universal Truth and there are only truths (with lowercase v) that are specific to a society or group of people and that are limited to individual perception .

Postmodernist philosophers developed concepts related to difference , repetition , trace and hyperreality, uniqueness of being, and epistemic certainty . Postmodern philosophy questions how important power relations , personalization, and truth and worldviews are.

Political postmodernism

Politics did not focus on political parties . It was seen as a tool to criticize the existing systems of power within society , the identification of oppressed groups , and the solution to lift those identified groups out of oppression , achieving a sense of social justice . Terms such as leftism and progressivism were used to represent his approach to politics. The identity politics sought to promote the interests of groups in society were seen as victims of social injustice.

Postmodernism in the world

Colombia

It is a country that is still in the shift from modernity to postmodernity. In the past, unions moved politics , and political parties were in charge of expressing public opinion, newspapers reported and religion was stigmatized; at present this no longer exists.

Spain

It functioned as an aesthetic and cultural alibi for the transition from the Franco dictatorship to the parliamentary monarchy . The debate regarding postmodernity in Spain began in the 1980s. It is limited to postismo, modern aesthetics, the art of reality and the present.

Peru

In Peru postmodernist writers did not use the exoticism and fantastic themes of modernist literature. They tried to recover their emotions for the most humble and simple things of daily life and they returned to confidential literature . In Peru, modernism ended the movement known as Colónida that marked the beginning of postmodernism.

Mexico

The postmodernity of Mexico is characterized mainly because in the country there is a great variety of freedom of thought . This movement is reflected in all the open spaces that exist in the country and generates a global impact and has unleashed many of the ideas that have emerged in the country during the 21st century.

Representatives

There are several representatives of postmodernism that have had a very important role in the current, among them we can mention:

  • Robert Venturi
  • Philip Johnson
  • Frank Gehry
  • Michael Graves
  • James stirling
  • Aldo rossi
  • Jose Fiansón
  • Jose Lora
  • Domingo Martinez

Plays

Among the main works made in the postmodern era we find the following:

  • Twilight
  • Twenty love poems
  • Residence on earth
  • The city of dogs
  • Conversation in cathedral
  • The party of the goat.

Importance

Postmodernity is important because it constitutes a time when the crisis of  modernity occurs. Incessant change appears , the culture of the ephemeral , the death of idealized progress , the fear of life, The search for happiness , the end of the ideological . The reality is supported by technology with information technology, robotics, telematics, and the service industry.

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