Polar climate


Wladimir Peter Köppen (1886-1940), a Russian of German origin who studied as a professional in meteorology, botany, climatology and geography, implemented the creation of a climatic classification of characterized, as the first parameter, in quantifying that the monthly average temperature does not reach a maximum of 10 ° C in any of the 12 months of the year; For this reason, when we speak of polar climate , it is described as a very scarce precipitation with factors as characteristic as that the relative humidity is quite low or that the wind blows with a powerful and thick intensity reaching a speed of up to 97km / h.


What is the polar climate?

It is defined as a type of climate where there is an extreme temperature of -93 ° C to 0 ° C and 0 ° C to 10 ° C according to the Köppen classification, as the maximum peak quantified in recent decades, this is due because the sun at both poles shines with an uninterrupted intensity during the first six months of the year, that is, during the spring and summer seasons ; to these months, they have been attributed with the name of polar day . And finally, the remaining six months between the autumn and winter seasons are kept hidden, which is what we take as the definition of polar night .


Living in places with this type of climate is almost impossible , however, throughout the history of the world the presence of certain fauna and flora has been found that have achieved a means of adaptation to how hostile this climate can be.

  • Characteristics of the polar climate
  • Population
  • Types
  • Flora of the polar climate
  • Fauna of the polar climate
  • Crops
  • Temperature
  • Precipitation
  • Where is it located
  • Countries with a polar climate
  • Polar weather clothing

Characteristics of the polar climate

There are some relevant characteristics in the presence of a polar climate:

  • Location: this is present in natural regions such as the north pole ( arctic circle or polar ring ) and the south pole (Antarctica).
  • Seasons of the year: we know that the seasons of the year correspond to parameters for a classification, here the concrete thing is that in areas such as the Arctic or Antarctica they do not make a tangible presence in the aforementioned seasons. Rather, these are represented mainly as two seasons where winter is extremely absent of heat, that is to say, an extensive cold; and on the other hand, there are measurable temperatures in the summer months that do not exceed 10 ° C.
  • Inclination of the Earth: with respect to these two poles and the angle of inclination that planet Earth possesses , days and nights have a duration of 6 months, that is, while at the north pole 6 months pass without that the sun sets or touches the horizon line , at the south pole there is an absence of sunlight during all this time.
  • Winds: there is the presence of strong winds called snowfall or blizzards that are characterized by the existence of storms with high-caliber and high-density winds loaded with large amounts of snow.
  • Landscape: it is a white landscape, this is due to snow and ice.


Human life in such icy areas turns out to have a low survival rate due to the lack of vegetation, scarcity of fauna and the frozen soil that prevents the possibility of harvesting and cultivation. However, there are limited population communities in the Arctic inhabited by Inuit and Lapps; and in Antarctica, there are facilities for small scientific communities to study the area.


There are two classifications or types of polar climate , these types of polar climates are presented at both poles of planet Earth, taking as an approximation above the two polar circles or rings that are: the Arctic and the Antarctic :

ET (tundra climate)

The polar tundra climate represents the warmest month and has an average temperature that is quantified between 0 and 10 ° C. The countries with a tundra climate are: Longyearbyen on the islands located in Svalbard, Norway and Dikson , located in Krasnoyarsk Krai , Russia , (also in Western Siberia ).

EF (polar cap climate)

The polar cap climate is characteristic that all months of the year have an average temperature that is quantified below 0 ° C. Places with climate icecap are: The Strait of Mcmurdo located in Antarctica and within Greenland .

Flora of the polar climate

The soil is frozen most of the time, therefore, the presence of plant life is difficult. However, there are times when the temperature is favorable and it grows in certain areas,  mosses , lichens and small shrubs .

Fauna of the polar climate

The fauna that occurs in the polar climate is also scarce, limited to a few mammals , some aquatic animals and birds. 

The mammals present in this region have white fur, as a means of protection from the attacks of other predators and to avoid being eaten.

As an example are:

  • The polar bear
  • Arctic fox
  • Arctic Wolf
  • Arctic hare
  • reindeer
  • Penguins
  • Whales
  • Fishes
  • Birds
  • The musk ox , or  snow goat

Birds, for their part, migrate in times of cold winter to warmer coasts.


Most prominent crops in the polar climate:

  • Garlic
  • Broccoli or broccoli
  • Cabbage cabbage
  • Collard greens
  • Carrot
  • Radishes or radishes
  • Chive
  • Lettuce
  • Green peas
  • Spinach
  • Chard


The polar climate is the coldest climate on planet earth and temperatures range depending on the season between 8 ° C or 9 ° C and -88 ° C as a basic standard. According to the Köppen classification, it is the type of climate where there is an extreme temperature of -93 ° C to 0 ° C and 0 ° C to 10 ° C


The rainfall that occurs is almost nil, with an approximation around 300 mm per year and always falls in a solid form as we commonly know snowflakes .

Where is it located

On planet Earth there are two large areas of very low temperature, calculable between 65º and 90º north and south latitude, the north pole  and the  south pole are located . At the north pole, we find the Arctic polar circle or ring, and at the second, the Antarctic polar circle or ring. However, in several mountainous regions, such as the peaks of the Himalayas , the Andes or the mountains of Alaska , there is a climate that looks similar to the polar climate, which is why they are included as geographical representations of it.

Countries with a polar climate

The countries with the most prominent polar climates are:

  • Canada
  • Finland
  • Russia
  • Norway
  • Greenland
  • United States

Polar weather clothing

  • Jacket.
  • Sweater.
  • Socks.
  • Earmuffs
  • Gloves.
  • Stockings or Leggings.
  • High Neck T-shirts.
  • Jeans.
  • Footwear.
  • Scarves or scarves.
  • Caps.
  • Coats.

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