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Phylogenetics

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To refer to the topic of phylogenetics, it is also important to know what phylogeny means . Phylogeny is the evolution of a group of genetically related organisms through the study of the evolution of proteins or genes by comparing homologous sequences . Phylogenetics is the study of phylogenies , that is, the study of the evolutionary relationships that occur between species. Phylogenetic analysis is the means used to estimate evolutionary relationships . In thisMolecular analysis , the sequence of a common gene or protein can be used to assess the evolutionary relationship of species.

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What is phylogenetics?

Phylogenetics is the branch of science that is responsible for making a classification of living beings taking into account their evolutionary history to obtain a structure similar to a tree taking into account the species that exist

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  • What does it consist of
  • History
  • Phylogenetic classification
  • Phylogenetic evolution
  • Human phylogenetics
  • Phylogenetic memory
  • Importance

What does it consist of

Phylogenetics consists of the classification that is made to living beings taking into account their evolutionary history . With the application of phylogenetics, a structure with branches very similar to what we know as a genealogical tree is created , in which the ancestors of a certain species are found , and the relationships it has with other different species. Phylogenetic trees then represent the evolutionary relationship that exists between different strains ; to infer phylogenetic relationships from complete genomic data .

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History

The first time that a drawing similar to the phylogenetic tree could be observed in the work of the naturalist Charles Darwin , The Origin of Species, which was written in the middle of the 19th century , which had been elaborated to explain the evolution of living beings.

Over time, the theory has evolved and gained strength, biologists such as Willi Hennig, a renowned German entomologist , Walter Zimmermann a German botanist , Warren H. Wagner, Jr. and many other scientists have also made valuable contributions .

Phylogenetic classification

A classification is an ordered arrangement of organisms or objects in a hierarchical series . In modern systematic study, researchers seek to construct classifications that are phylogenetic and to do this, many characters must be observed, recorded, and analyzed for all organisms or taxa included in an investigation. Factors to consider in the phylogeny of organisms include common ancestors , evolutionary divergence and inequality rates evolution . The phylogenetic classification system only names clades , these clades are groups of organisms that descend from acommon ancestor .

Phylogenetic classifications can be monophyletic , polyphyletic, or paraphyletic . Monophyletic refers to those organisms that have only one ancestor , and exists when all organisms included in a group share a common ancestor and none of the descendants of that ancestor are excluded. When the organisms included are derived from two or more ancestors , the classification is known as polyphyletic . When a classification does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor, it is called paraphyletic.. Phylogenetic classifications should be based on monophyletic groups, whenever possible.

Phylogenetic evolution

The term evolution refers to the process by which a species changes over the generations, therefore, phylogenetic evolution is responsible for covering everything that refers to hominid evolution in its biological aspect and the necessary criteria for its power to understand this evolution .

Human phylogenetics

With regard to the phylogenetics of man, there are many divisions that are taken into account, below we will briefly mention them:

  • Australopithecus deyiremeda : this species was defined in 2015 and is coexistent with Au. afarensis in its same ecological niche although it has some morphological differences.
  • Australopithecus prometheus : it refers to a set of fossils assigned to it and one of its main characteristics was the most complete Australopithecus skeleton.
  • Early Homo : specimens noted for Ledi-Geraru’s jaw. It was modern in appearance, with small teeth, narrow molars and symmetrical premolars, although it had a very primitive receding chin.
  • Homo naledi : The dating of the fossils from the Dinaledi chamber was published in May 2017.
  • Denisovans : refers to the famous 3 Denisova cave specimens that had a phalanx of the hand and two molars, which also had a phylogenetic relationship with Neanderthals and Homo sapiens.
  • Early Neanderthals : referring to the DNA and morphology of the hominins of the Sima de los Huesos in Spain .
  • Homo sapiens : this is our species that emerged in Africa about 200,000 years ago.

Phylogenetic memory

This type of memory is a concept that describes a variety of processes in the area of biology and psychology by means of which genetic material provides you with a memory about the history of an individual or a species. In the area of population genetics and evolution, phylogenetic memory represents the story has been recorded in the adaptive changes that has experienced a kind .

Importance

Phylogenetics is important because it provides us with the necessary basis for comparative genomics , which refers to the study of the interrelationships of genomes of different species in order to identify regions of similarity and differences that exist between genomes. It helps us to know the evolutionary history that a group of organisms has.

At present it is also used in the area of ​​biology as the best way to organize our knowledge about biodiversity ; And so they occur in all sorts of fields, including topics as diverse as immunology , epidemiology, and conservation .

It has worked for scientists to test different hypotheses about evolution , to gain knowledge about the characteristics of extinct species and ancestral lineages, and also to classify different organisms .

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