One of the men who managed to occupy the position of King of Spain although this position was not for him but for his brother, was Felipe III . King of the crowns of Castile , Portugal and Aragon , he was proclaimed king the same day his father died , on September 13, 1598 and with him began the serious decline that the Austrian and Spanish monarchy would suffer. and the period known as the rule of the favorites .
- When was he born: 04/14/1578
- Where he was born: Madrid, Spain
- When he died: 03/31/1621
- Where he died: Madrid, Spain
Who was Felipe III?
Philip III of Spain, who was also known as Philip the Pious , was a king of Spain and Portugal who came to the throne on September 13 of the year 1598 and remained as king until the day of his death. Son and heir of Felipe II and Ana de Austria .
- What did
- Biography of Felipe III
- Reign of Philip III
- Foreign policy
- Physical characteristics
- Which dynasty did he belong to
- Who were the valid of Felipe III
- Curiosities about Felipe III
- Presence in popular culture
Felipe III made it possible for the hegemony of Spain to be maintained throughout the world. It made possible the expulsion of the Moors and with it, the courtesan struggles between the favorites were re-established with which a private regime was introduced that made it possible for the Castilian nobility to enjoy power practically from the beginning of the 16th century. thus achieving to give a greater prestige to the monarchy , which had been affected.
Biography of Felipe III
Felipe III was born in April 1578 in Madrid . His birth went almost unnoticed because at the time of his birth, his father already had another son who later died leaving him in the position to rule the Spanish monarchy . He was ritualized with the oath of the kingdoms in Portugal , Castile and Aragon and after this, all the corresponding tasks began to make him monarch .
Little is known about his education or about the activities he did before coming to the throne. He was educated by the officials of the prince’s house and learned Latin , French , geometry , science, and also had a great knowledge of religious works . Since he was a child, he was part of government boards and also participated in various public activities .
His death was recorded on March 21, 1621 due to erysipelas . He died when he was 43 years old and after having reigned the country for a total of 22 years.
Reign of Philip III
Felipe III decided to delegate all the matters that were related to the government in the hands of the Duke of Lerma and through him, the court of Spain moved temporarily to Valladolid . After the death of Lerma, his son continued with his work but with less power from the king. The two of them looked for a way to enrich themselves, they increased all the expenses of the Court and with this one of the first problems related to the serious economic crisis that would come was originated .
During his reign, there were also several institutional reforms that tried to find solutions to the problems that arose due to corruption and the ineffectiveness of the administration by the Monarchy . He used the resource of the Boards to be able to diminish the power of those who tried a more agile government . He also adopted various resources in order to alleviate the crisis that arose in the Treasury .
With his coming to power, a series of well-known “ minor Austrias ” began, which were monarchs that belonged to the House of Habsburg , a situation that produced a significant decline in all the power of Spain throughout Europe . At the beginning of his government he tried to give more importance to peace and the Peace of London with England was signed in 1604 . In 1609 the Twelve Years Truce with the Netherlands was signed, peace was also signed with France .
The economic problems that Felipe III had to face came from the inheritance that Felipe II had left him , these problems were based on the fiscal pressure , inflation and all the expenses related to the war . In addition, the great extravagances of the royal house produced that the economy also entered into crisis. Between the years of 1610 and 1620 the crisis of the commerce with the Indies began and with it the reduction in the American remittances was noticed. There was also a great economic burden on Castile .
The Duke of Lerma decided to establish various measures to try to clean up the economy. The elimination of increases in taxes , the sale of charges and jurisdictions , Jewish subsidies by the Portuguese and the manipulation of the monetary system were some of his measures.
As for his foreign policy, his reign was characterized by seeking peace . He created two attempts to avenge the disaster that had been produced by the Invincible Armada which failed. In 1604 , Felipe III was able to make peace with the King of England and with the King of Scotland James VI . Because of the ruin that produced the Royal Treasury had to sign the Truce of the Twelve Years with Holland .
In order to also ensure peace with France , several marriages were planned between the King of France with one of the infantas of Spain, and the heir of Spain with a French infanta. Finally, all attempts to achieve peace failed with the Habsburgs who were in charge of razing all of Europe during the Thirty Years ‘ War . The first phase of this conflict affected Spain and Felipe III had to face it.
He was described as a man with a thin and delicate complexion . His stature was quite short but at the same time he was strong .
He had a fairly gentle personality , his feelings were kind, and he always tried to imitate his father in everything he did. He was submissive and also obedient as his nature was quite easy to get along with.
His parents were Felipe II and his wife Queen Anne of Austria .
He married Margaret of Austria in 1599.
From their marriage, a total of eight children were born who were:
- Anne , wife of Louis XIII of France
- Philip IV
- Mary who married King Ferdinand of Hungary
- Ferdinand who became a cardinal
- His other children passed away during infancy.
His successor was Felipe IV who was also known by the nickname of “the Great” or as “the king of the planet”. His reign was one of the longest with a total of 44 years.
Which dynasty did he belong to
Felipe III belonged to the royal house of Austria.
Who were the valid of Felipe III
One of the main innovations created by Felipe III was a political system within the monarchy known as valid . These were a series of characters who were also members of the aristocracy in whom the king decided to place his trust . Then, the king completely ignored his functions and relegated decision-making to a valid one, mainly because relations with the government were very difficult for the king to carry out and carry out.
The valid ones were in charge of governing following the institutional system that was part of the monarchy and subject to the Council . Reduced Boards were also created and this system meant that corruption increased considerably in the country. Its main valid were the Duke of Lerma and the Duke of Uceda .
Felipe III was an important king for Spain because thanks to him it was possible to maintain an adequate hegemony of the Habsburgs in the world, despite the fact that his poor economic management caused the empire to fall and decline.
Famous phrases that have been mentioned by Felipe III are not recorded.
Curiosities about Felipe III
Some curiosities of the king were the following:
- The king never really had an interest in state affairs and that is why he left this task in the hands of his friends.
- He was more interested in some hobbies such as horses, music , parties, and hunting.
- In the center of the Plaza Mayor located in Madrid you can find a statue of Felipe III.
- He was known as ” The Pious One .”
Presence in popular culture
In popular culture, the story of King Philip III can be found in various books, some of them are mentioned below.
- Under indictment. Valimiento in the reign of Felipe III «Processes and discourses».
- The difficult inheritance. The battles of Felipe III in defense of the paternal legacy «.
- Tomás Luis de Victoria and the musical culture in the Spain of Felipe III.
- The Spanish monarchy of the 16th and 17th centuries.