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Phenotype

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The genotype is basically the genetic constitution that an organism possesses. The genotype is responsible for determining the potentials and hereditary limitations that an individual possesses from embryonic formation until they reach adulthood . Among organisms that reproduce sexually, an individual’s genotype comprises the complex set of genes that are inherited from both parents. It can be shown mathematically that sexual reproduction practically guarantees that each individual will have a unique genotype with the exception of those individuals, such as identical twins., which are derived from the same ovum that has been fertilized.

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What is the phenotype?

The phenotype is any characteristic that an individual has, such as its morphology, development, physiology and behavior. It is affected by environmental factors and by the interactions that the individual has with it.

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  • What is the phenotype
  • Etymology
  • Characteristics of phenotypes
  • Types of phenotype
  • Examples

What is the phenotype

the genotypeof an individual consists of the composition, in the genome of the individual, of a specific region of DNA that varies within a population. The genome of the individual is the total collection of DNA found on the chromosomes of a cell. It includes all of the individual’s genes, as well as the DNA sequences that lie between them. A genotype could represent a single nucleotide of DNA, in a specific location on a chromosome, but it could also be a repeated sequence of nucleotides several times, a large duplication or a deletion of some of them. Most variations in genotypes do not cause any difference in the proteins that the cell produces, because genes, which code for proteins, occupy only about 2 percent of the total genome. But nevertheless,physics . The physical effect of a particular genotype is known as its phenotype or trait.

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Etymology

The word phenotype is a modern word in itself that is formed by the root of the Greek verb ” phainein ” which means to hit and the word typtein and typos which mean prototype , typology or logo. It arose in opposition to the word genotype. The discovery is due to Mendel who was the first to understand the dual nature of organisms, their dichotomy between their genotype and their phenotype. The phenotype is the expression of the genotype. The word phenotype is a structural concept, an entity.

Characteristics of phenotypes

Among the most outstanding characteristics of the phenotypes we can mention the following:

  • They can be observed through biochemical tests .
  • The phenotype of an individual can be affected by the relationship he has with the environment that surrounds him.
  • The phenotype of an organism not only involves observable characteristics , such as morphology, but also includes molecules and structures such as RNA and the proteins produced encoded by genes.
  • It is determined mainly by the genotype or by the equality that there is in the alleles .
  • The equation that scientists use to describe the phenotype is the following: environment + genotype + environment * genotype = phenotype .
  • They have variability and this is known by the name of polyphasia or polyphenism .
  • They can be identified by means of molecular biology and by different human or animal reproduction experiments .
  • Attitudes and behavior are considered part of the phenotype

Types of phenotype

  • Phenotype ontogenetic : This type of phenotype is in constant transformation from the time it is conceived until it reaches his death . It is the change in the structure that occurs in an individual continuously and always triggered by environmental interactions.
  • Dominant phenotype : they are produced by the dominant alleles that individuals have. It is the one that occurs most frequently and the one that is most prevalent in the offspring.
  • Recessive phenotype : for this type of phenotype to occur, the individual must have two copies from each parent. In order to manifest, alleles must be alone.
  • Morphological phenotype : it is linked to the shape of the individuals.
  • Behavioral phenotype : it is linked to the different behaviors that are developed in order to adapt to the demands produced by the environment in which an individual operates.

Examples

A person may have been born with white skin , but with the passage of time and the effects of the sun , this color may well turn into a dark color .

In plants you can see several examples such as hydrangea, which is a plant that can present blue or pink flowers, which would be its phenotype, but depending on the type of soil in which they grow or the environment, the plant You can vary your flowers in blue if the soil is acidic and pink if the soil has a basic pH.

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