he perceptual methods that are used to represent space and volume , that represent them as seen at a particular moment and from a fixed position , contrast with conceptual methods. The perspective is itself part of the art, it is an important component in artistic works representing objects in a three – dimensional on a surface two – dimensional plane to recreate in this way the relative position and depth of objects.


What is perspective?

Perspective most commonly refers to linear perspective , the optical illusion that uses converging lines and vanishing points that make objects appear smaller the further away they are from the viewer.




The perspective is an artistic technique that is used to create an illusion of three dimensions including depth and space in a two – dimensional or flat surface. It is then what makes a painting appear to have “real” shape , distance, and appearance . The same perspective rules apply to all subjects or objects in a painting, whether it is landscape , seascape, still life, interior scene , portrait, or figure painting .


The main characteristics of the perspective are the following:

  • There are several types of typologies related to perspectives that are derived from geometry .
  • It is used to demonstrate the appearance of future constructions .
  • The illusion is projected in a three-dimensional world on a surface that has two dimensions.
  • Helps create a sense of depth .
  • Controls the variation between the sizes of subjects and objects that are rendered.


Perspective in Western art is often referred to as linear perspective and was developed in the early 15th century. It was a movement that began with the form of vision that modern man has and for this reason, it is considered that its origin came from the Renaissance era, with the establishment of plastic arts.


The first attempts to develop a perspective system began in the 5th century BC . In Ancient Greece, there was a desire to produce a kind of optical illusion of depth in theater settings . The rules of perspective that were initially applied in Western art were developed during the Renaissance in Florence, Italy, in the early 15th century. Before this time, paintings were stylized and symbolic rather than realistic depictions of life themes. Euclidhe was charged with introducing a mathematical theory regarding perspective and Chinese artists used oblique perspective from the 1st to the 18th century.

In late antiquity , the use of perspective was somewhat reduced and the art that was born with the new cultures in the period of the great migrations and medieval art lasted a long time so it was inconsistent to learn the classical models.


There are different elements that are part of the perspective, among them we can mention:

  • Parallel lines: they are lines that go side by side and, despite the fact that they remain in the same plane, they will never be able to meet.
  • Oblique lines : these are the lines that start from different points and that go one next to the other, but that they may meet at some point along their route.
  • Convergent lines : they are lines considered as parts of two different parts which then meet at a certain point.
  • Divergent lines : are the lines that start from the same point in different directions.


The types of perspective are as follows:

  • Linear perspective:  This type consists of parallel lines that go from closer to further and also converge at a vanishing point , causing an illusion of depth . This vanishing point is located inside the painting, in a deep part. Depending on this type of perspective, the painter can place the figures near or far, in different planes which are not parallel and can also interpose the void between them.
  • Aerial perspective : it is in charge of perfecting the linear perspective , of blurring the converging lines, eliminating the limits of shape and color, which gives a very real impression of the distance. In this type of perspective, the climatic and atmospheric conditions give a sensation of depth , the colors and the tonality of the image are muffled by increasing the distance. The different color changes make it easier for the aerial perspective to stand out and stand out.
  • Parallel perspective – Consists of a single vanishing point that should be right in front of us or only slightly offset.
  • Oblique perspective : this type has two “vanishing points” on the object’s diagonals, which will naturally be found on the Horizon Line .
  • Inverted perspective : the vanishing point is placed forward, to the outside of the frame. It is used quite frequently.
  • Perspective of importance : allows to highlight a character in relation to others in the same icon. The size of the characters establishes their hierarchical importance in the same icon.
  • Perspective in the drawing : there are three types of perspective in the drawing which are:
    • Axonometric perspective
    • Knight perspective
    • Conical perspective

Methods for making a perspective drawing

The first thing we need to do is create a vanishing point by drawing an X in the center of the paper and then extending from the center to the edge of the paper. It should be after drawing a series of posts on the right side and can be replaced by lines . A series of posts is drawn on the left side and the pieces of what we want to draw are started to be placed.

What is it for

Artists use perspective to be able to represent objects in three-dimensional form on a two-dimensional surface that can become a piece of paper or canvas in a way that looks natural and realistic . Perspective can create an illusion of space and depth on a flat surface or in the image plane.

Artists who have used perspective

  • Michael Paul Smith
  • Rémi Noël
  • Felice varini
  • Lucas Levitan
  • McSteez Man

Works in perspective

Some of the most important works in perspective that have been created are:

  • The Ideal City , attributed to Piero della Francesca.
  • Sacra Conversación , by Piero della Francesca.
  • Portrait of the Arnolfini couple , by Van Eyck
  • Dürer’s engraving showing a system of reference visuals for making perspective drawings.
  • Piazza San Marco with the Basilica , the work of Canaletto.


Its importance lies in the fact that it is a process that allows us to represent the objects of a work in the form and arrangement in which we observe it, it is a necessary tool to be able to recreate the depths and the position of the objects, in addition to collaborating in simulating depth. It is by means of which the illusion of a three-dimensional world can be projected onto a surface that has two dimensions.

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