Operating system

During the time that we are living, we see the presence of technology everywhere, and it is that technology makes things easier for us with each passing day. In turn, there is also something that facilitates the system and the processing of computers called the operating system

hat is the operating system?

An operating system is nothing more than a set of computer applications or programs that allow the correct and adequate handling of information and resources within a computer . These programs start to work as soon as the CPU is turned on since it also handles the hardware from its most basic to the most complex processes; In addition, it is in constant interaction with the user since this is what we handle on our computers when using them.

  • Definition
  • Characteristics of an operating system
  • Components
  • What is an operating system for
  • Source
  • Story
  • Functions of an operating system
  • Types
  • Importance
  • Examples

Definition

The operating system generally called OS, is the main software or also a set of programs of a computer system that has the task of processing all the hardware resources, and also of providing all the information that the application programs need.

One of the main purposes of the operating system is to manage the intermediate kernel,  that is, it is responsible for managing location resources and providing hardware access protection.

Characteristics of an operating system

Below we list the characteristics that an operating system has:

  • It allows you to run various programs at the same time , but it is the operating system that determines the priority between the programs, that is, it is the one who decides what is the order of opening them and how long they will remain open while they are not in use.
  • It manages the internal memory exchanges within the different installed applications.
  • It is responsible for managing and preparing the inputs and outputs to and from the hardware devices that are connected such as the hard disk , the graphics card, the printer and the different ports.
  • It allows to carry out continuous tasks and at the same time allows to separate the processes between the different processor cores to improve and speed up the work.

Components

The components of an operating system are:

  • Process management: processes are called a program that is running which needs resources to develop its tasks, this includes CPU time, memory, files and I / O devices. This is said to be a job quite similar to office work.
  • Main memory management: a table that contains a large number of words or bytes that represent a unique address within the system is called memory .
  • Secondary storage management: as its name indicates it is a secondary memory store which is very necessary since it relieves the processes of the main memory which usually fails; also this is very small and allows support in emergency cases.
  • Input and output system: this refers to the cache memory system , this manages the information between the applications in a fast and simple way available to the main computer.
  • File system: files refer to large collections of information , defined by their creators ( users ) made up of texts and multimedia files.
  • Protection system: it is the access control system of the programs and also of the users who enter the system. Distinguish between authorized and unauthorized users, specify security controls, and force the system to lock in an emergency.
  • Communications system: maintains communications with other systems, in addition to being able to send and receive information through an interface network .
  • System programs: includes all those applications that are included within the operating system but are not part of it, this includes the content managers , the equipment revision systems, the different programming languages and all those relating to the communication area. 
  • Resource manager: it is the one in charge of managing all things related to processing such as its central unit, input and output devices, disks, memories and all those elements that are included as system resources.

What is an operating system for

It provides all the tools and support that the user needs when managing their computer. By facilitating and making various functions available to you, both at the internal functioning level and also at the user interface.

Source

Its origin dates back to the first IBM computer models which needed a system to complete and facilitate certain tasks for operators and engineers, which if performed manually would be very tedious.

History

During 1945 and 1954 the first operating systems were developed, which were implemented in rudimentary machines operated from a master console by the programmers of these maquilas.

It is in the late 1980s when the Commodore Amiga computer  had a Video Toaster accelerator that had the ability to produce effects comparable to those of dedicated systems that cost much more than this equipment.

Functions of an operating system

The operating system has five main functions:

  • Management of system-wide resources . (this also includes peripherals or devices connected to the computer)
  • Provide an interface so that the user can load programs, access all their files and perform various activities within the PC.
  • Manage all files stored and uploaded to your computer. It allows both creating and modifying them and also deleting them.
  • It provides support and utility tools to manage our computer when updating our system, controlling its security and backup, controlling the peripherals placed on the computer and correcting system errors.
  • The administration of tasks in a simple way, which are being executed by both the user and the system.

Types

Task management

It is separated into two types in single task and multitasking. Single tasks are those that only allow one process to be carried out at a time, while multitasks are those that can execute different processes at the same time.

Users Management

Like the task, it is separated into two types single-user and multi-user. Single users are those that can only run a single-user program at a time, while multi- users are those that can run multiple multi-user programs at the same time.

Resource management

Like the previous two, it is divided into two types: the first is the centralized one that refers to the administration and use of resources from a single computer, while the distributed is one that allows the use of resources from several computers at the same time.

In turn, there are currently several types of operating system for different computers such as devices such as cameras and video game consoles, but the main ones are:

  • PC operating systems.
  • Mobile phone operating systems.
  • The operating systems of smart watches.

Importance

As technology takes giant steps, its operation also becomes more complex, having to depend on elements such as operating systems for its correct performance.

The easiest way to understand this is by looking at the continuous updates of Android operating systems , which are constantly updated to adapt to the needs of team developers and also of their users.

Examples

  • Windows.
  • Mac OS.
  • Unix.
  • Solaris.
  • Free BSD.
  • Open BSD.
  • Google Chrome OS.
  • They owed GNU / Linux (GNU / Linux).
  • Ubuntu Linux (GNU / Linux).
  • Wave OS.
  • Mandriva (GNU / Linux).
  • Sabayon (GNU / Linux).
  • Fedora (GNU / Linux).
  • Puppy Linux (GNU / Linux).
  • Haiku (BeOS).
  • Plan 9.
  • Freespire.
  • HP-UX.
  • ReactOS.
  • BeOS.
  • Tuquito (GNU / Linux).
  • Red Hat Enterprise Linux for Desktops or Workstations (GNU / Linux).
  • SUSE (GNU / Linux).
  • OpenSUSE (GNU / Linux).
  • LindowsOS / Linspire.
  • Android PC.
  • KALI LINUX (GNU / Linux).
  • Android.
  • iOS.
  • Bada.
  • BlackBerry OS.
  • BlackBerry 10.
  • Windows Phone.
  • Windows 10 Mobile.
  • Symbian OS.
  • HP web OS.
  • Firefox OS.
  • Ubuntu Phone OS.
  • Tizen.
  • Asha Platform.
  • Palm OS.
  • WebOs.
  • CyanogenMod.
  • Android.
  • WatchOS.
  • Android Wear.
  • WearOS.
  • OpenWatch.

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