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Natural Gas

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The gas is one of the states of aggregation in which the subject can be found in which, depending on the conditions of pressure and temperature , its molecules interact to form molecular bonds . There are several types of gas, one of them is natural gas , a mixture of other gases of which methane is found in a higher proportion.

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What is the natural gas?

Natural gas is a type of fossil energy that arises from the mixture of various light gaseous hydrocarbons which are extracted from oil or coal fields . It is a gas in which large amounts of methane and other gases can be found .

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  • Characteristics of natural gas
  • Story
  • Composition
  • What is natural gas for?
  • Obtaining
  • Bookings
  • Environmental impact
  • Cost per country
  • Advantages of natural gas
  • Disadvantage
  • Importance

Characteristics of natural gas

There are several characteristics that can be observed in natural gas, the most important are mentioned below:

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  • It has a level of combustion that can be regulated.
  • Produces less amounts of pollution and less carbon dioxide .
  • It can burn in a cleaner , safer and more efficient way, which is why it is considered an environmentally friendly type of fuel .
  • It has a fairly low boiling point which can reach -158 ° C.
  • It is a type of natural resource considered a fossil fuel .
  • The raw material that is responsible for forming natural gas is kerogen .
  • Natural gas, depending on the way it is produced, can be classified into three different types. The biogenic that is produced from organic matter which faces bacteria when it is in the diagenetic stage. Thermogenic natural gas is the one that is produced during the catagenetic stage and occurs when the decomposition of organic matter occurs, but at the same time it can control the temperature. Lastly, abiogenic natural gas is formed due to the non-organic production of methane gas.

History

The natural gas used today had its origins millions of years ago. In 2000 BC, the first gas deposits appeared when the ancient Persians discovered that it existed, but they thought they were eternal fires that were caused by the gods. In 125 BC the first wells began to be drilled in China and the gas was transported by means of hollow bamboo poles . With the passage of time, gas began to be used more in the year 1659 , England began to register the first deposits, however, they did not have adequate knowledge to be able to move it from one place to another. At the beginning of the 19th century, they began to use gas in lighting .

In New York , in 1821 , it was possible to transport gas through a copper pipe to consumers but it was until 1890 that technology intervened and various types of leak- proof joints were created which made it possible for the gas was carried to greater distances that reached even 150 kilometers away. By 1927 , the pipeline systems had evolved enormously and that is how the construction of one of the largest transmission systems began in the country , which is known as gas pipelines .

Composition

The composition of natural gas can vary depending on the field in which it is located. Its main component is methanol , which is found in proportions ranging from 79 to 97%. It is also made up of other gases such as butane , propane , nitrogen , carbon dioxide, and some types of impurities . It is also possible to find within its composition some heavier hydrocarbons such as noble gases .

What is natural gas for?

Natural gas is used to be used as a type of fuel for domestic use (for cooking and to heat water) and also for industrial use thanks to its great calorific power. On many occasions, it is used as a raw material in the production of ammonia , ethylene , propylene and methanol . It is also used in thermoelectric plants which work by means of open or combined cycle turbines which at the same time are mobilized by means of natural gas.

Obtaining

In order to obtain this type of gas, it is first necessary to carry out an adequate exploration of the area in order to discover , identify and then quantify the amount of gaseous hydrocarbons that are present. Natural gas can be obtained in places where there is the presence of porous and permeable rocks that have the ability to keep the gas internally. After the area has been studied, an exploitation plan is created which must include all the activities necessary for its extraction as well as the steps to carry out the separation of the oil .

Subsequently, the drilling of the gas reservoir is carried out by means of a technique known as direct rotation in which the matter, in this case the gas, is transferred to the surface by means of a drilling arm. Then the gas is transferred to the place where it will be stored, fulfilling a series of quality and safety standards both in infrastructure and in means of transport .

Bookings

The main natural gas reserve is in the Middle East where 43% of the total gas is located worldwide, specifically in cities such as Iran and Qatar . Important reserves can also be found in Saudi Arabia and the United States .

Environmental impact

One of the great advantages of natural gas is that its environmental impact is much lower as it is less polluting than other types of gases, because in its composition there are very small proportions of sulfur and mercury . Although natural gas has a minor impact, it is important to remember that several studies have shown that some types of pollutants can be produced during the first extraction phase .

These contaminants are mainly produced technique the fracking with which the gas subsurface as it is removed, and produce air pollution and noise , can even produce tremors in the earth and fissures producing the contaminants out the air with greater ease. Nowadays, other means of extraction have been created which reduce the environmental impact, improve productivity and avoid air and water pollution.

Cost per country

Generally, natural gas has a cost that is established using the kilowatt hour ( kWh ) as a unit of measure for energy consumption. Some examples of the cost of natural gas by country are mentioned below, however it is important to mention that these rates will also depend on the use and type of contract that is acquired.

  • Spain : in this country, the approximate cost of natural gas is between € 0.0519 and € 0.0615 / kWh.
  • Mexico : the price of natural gas in dollars in Mexico is around $ 3,285.
  • United States: in the country the average cost of gas is between 2.05 dollars and 18 dollars depending on the place.

Advantages of natural gas

The main advantages of natural gas are the following:

  • It is a gas that is quite easy to obtain .
  • It is cheaper than other gases.
  • The extraction and transport process is simpler.
  • They have a fairly high calorific value .
  • It can be used in houses for water heating.
  • Being a service channeled through pipes, it does not need a space to be stored.
  • Its supply is continuous because it is connected to a network.
  • It is quite safe and comfortable .

Disadvantage

Some of its disadvantages are mentioned below:

  • The poor technique extraction can cause the give pollution .
  • Misuse in homes or factories could lead to explosions.
  • This type of gas does not have any odor and therefore, in the event of a leak it is impossible to detect it.
  • It is not a type of renewable energy .
  • As it is not present in all corners of the planet, it causes a significant dependence in countries that do not have gas deposits.

Importance

Its importance lies in the fact that natural gas is currently one of the most relevant sources of energy which can be used both for domestic use and for commercial and even industrial use . It is also a type of energy that turns out to be less harmful to humans and the environment , more economical and safer.

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