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Migration

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The migrations are situations involving the change of the place where he resides to another. In the case of human beings, this type of activity is studied through the demography and geography of a given population, while when it occurs in animal species , it is zoology , biogeography and ecology , the sciences that are commissioned to study this type of movement.

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What is migration?

The migration is the movement of population from a place of origin to a destination different that brings the change of residence in people, or the habitat in the case of animal species.

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  • Definition
  • Story
  • Processes that led to large migrations
  • Types
  • Causes
  • Consequences
  • Advantage
  • Disadvantages
  • Migration in Spain
  • Migration in Argentina
  • Migration in Mexico
  • Migration in the United States
  • Animal migration

Definition

Migration is the process of movement of individuals and people who go from one country or region to another or from a specific place to a different one. You can voluntarily choose the place to go in search of new and better opportunities , or sometimes because the person has been forced to escape by different negative or dangerous situations . Migration has been an integral part of the human condition over time and the different patterns of movement that occur are a reflection of constant change.that the world suffers .

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History

The migration process is a phenomenon that has occurred since the beginning of the history of human beings as a species. Many cultures and religions have some type of migration process within their history, and if we look at history well, we can see it since the exodus of the Jewish people from Egypt .

Throughout history there have been important migrations, one of them was the one that took the hominids from their territories to move towards Europe in search of better living conditions, the agricultural revolution that occurred in the Neolithic period drove communities to move to Asia Minor and the Mediterranean , thousands of people from Africa to spread around the world, the Greeks sailed the seas and reached Africa, Italy and Spain , to mention a few cases.

With the arrival of the New World , a time of great and important migratory movements began. The nations began to spread and America was one of the most monopolized points due to its natural wealth and its small population .

Processes that led to large migrations

Among the main processes that lead to large migrations of people we can mention:

  • The discovery of America .
  • The slavery .
  • The Second World War .
  • Wars and armed conflicts.
  • Famines and diseases .

Types

There are several types of migration, depending on the time and place, among them we can mention the following:

  • Distance-based migration:
    • Intra-building: it is the movement that occurs within a building.
    • Inter-building : are the pedestrian patterns that occur between a complex of buildings.
    • Local scale : involves moving from one house to another within the same town or city.
    • Regional scale : it is the type of migration that occurs within a country from one county / state to another.
    • International scale : it is the migration that occurs from one country to another (emigration / immigration).
    • Global scale : it is the type of migration that occurs between distant continents.
  • Duration-based migration:
    • Daily : involves going to and from work every day.
    • Seasonal : when people go to a place where the climate is more suitable for the activities they are trying to do.
    • Medium-term temporary : involves going to work abroad for a few years or in the case of students going to a university.
    • Permanent : it is emigrating to another country with no intention of returning.
  • Migration based on reason:
    • Forced by the environment : it is a situation that occurs when people flee from a region of drought / flood / desertification / eruption.
    • Forced or for political reasons: when threats to liberty , security and liberty are given due to religious, ethnic, racial or political persecution, conflict or war.
    • Collective behavior : when an identified group moves to another place to maintain group cohesion.
    • Personal aspiration : when people want to have a better standard of living for themselves and the family and to obtain economic and social benefits.
    • Personal well-being : it is the migration that occurs for reasons of health or perceived quality of life.

Causes

Among the main causes that cause migration processes, we find in the first place the wars that leave the civilian population in the middle of the conflict, which makes them flee in search of greater security . Another important cause is political conflicts, mainly in countries that live under a dictatorial regime . The poor economy is another factor driving migration to other places where they have more and better opportunities , lack of opportunities for education and work drive the population, mainly young to move to different places in search ofnew horizons .

The lack of alternative to achieve occupational successes , the uncertainty of the economic future , the high rate of insecurity facing the growth of violence, a series of unsatisfied basic needs, personal and work frustration , access to information about different options in the workplace. exterior, are many of the causes that drive people to migrate.

Consequences

Among the main consequences that can be observed in the migration process we find:

  • Psychological effects on migrants who must abandon their lives to move to a different place. It is an effect or consequence that depends entirely on the character of the person.
  • Decrease in productivity in place of origin since most migrants are young, considered as the labor force of a country.
  • Growth of the economy in the place that welcomes migrants.
  • Xenophobia , a situation that occurs in many countries with high migrations.

Advantage

Among the main advantages that we can observe with migration we mention:

  • Migration benefits the economies of nations as more capital is developed
  • It allows increasing productivity by diversifying the supply of labor.
  • It helps economic growth .
  • Contribute to the demographic bonus .
  • Favors greater collection of taxes .
  • More companies are created as a source of job creation.
  • Help with care work .

Disadvantages

Among the main disadvantages of migration we have:

  • Not all countries where people migrate are hospitable to immigrants.
  • You can file racial discrimination or discriminatory comments , by your country or region of origin.
  • The unemployment is a significant disadvantage for immigrants, especially if they decide to live in another country without validating academic credentials and / or professionals who are in the country.
  • Exploitation can occur by your employers because they cannot change your situation.
  • Many immigrants engage in criminal acts instead of finding jobs legally.
  • People must deal with loneliness , having to leave home, family and friends.
  • The change of culture, by experiencing new foods, customs, dances, etc.

Migration in Spain

Spain is an attractive country for migrants and migration itself has grown considerably over time. Many of the people who come to live do so in search of jobs and better lives . The migrants come mainly from Latin America, mainly from Venezuela , as they are fleeing the dictatorship. They also have migration from Colombia , Morocco , Romania and the United Kingdom .

Migration in Argentina

Argentina is considered as a receiving country for migrants since the 19th century . People travel to the place seeking employment and social mobility.  The country is itself an important driver of migration policy , which has in fact managed to change the social structure of the country, filling it with different customs and traditions.

Migration in Mexico

Over time, the patterns of migration in the country have changed and Mexicans cross the borders in fewer numbers , while residents increase in number. There has been an increase in agricultural workers , some traveling as part of the professional exchange .

Migration in the United States

The United States is probably the country with the highest number of legal and illegal migrations . The migrants come mainly from Mexico , India, China , the Philippines, El Salvador, the Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Cuba. The country has several ways to acquire American citizenship and many others live in the country as legal residents , undocumented and legal residents with work , exchange or study visas .

Animal migration

The migration of animals is a movement that species make from one habitat to another, regardless of whether they are terrestrial, marine or aerial animals . The animal migration process has several objectives that range from moving away from extreme temperatures, searching for better places to reproduce, to flee from predators or in search of food.

Types

There are three types of migrations:

  • Temporary migrations : are those in which the migrating population returns to their place of origin.
  • Trophic migrations : they are in which the species look for a more suitable place to live and to find food.
  • Genetic migrations : they are conditioned by the need of the species of a population to find a suitable place to reproduce or to raise their offspring.

Causes

There are several reasons why animals migrate from one place to another. The changes in temperature that occur during the seasons, the intense cold and the increase in heat during the summer cause the animals to move from habitat. The reproduction and survival are perhaps two of the most important reasons for migrating animals and finally fleeing from predators and threats by different species that causes some animals to migrate in search of shelter .

Consequences

Among the main consequences observed with animal migration we can mention:

  • Some animals could get lost during the journey.
  • Spread of organisms or species.
  • Development of ecological functions
  • Loss of food sources for animals due to human constructions.
  • Loss of migration routes due to the development of cities.

Examples of animal migration

  • Sea turtles : the Loggerhead that is born in Japan and moves to Mexico to feed.
  • Bald Eagles : North American seabirds that gather in the winter in Canada and feed on salmon.
  • Whales : they make the longest journey among the animals that migrate and go from the South Pole to the North of Costa Rica.
  • Antelopes : they cross the plains of Tanzania and Kenya to look for food.
  • Monarch Butterflies : They have one of the most incredible migrations in the world. They arrive in California in October to nest because of the winter and then head to the pine and eucalyptus forests of Monterey .

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