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Midbrain

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Located at the base of the brain we can find a small but very important region known by the name of midbrain , which serves as a connection point vital among the other major regions of the brain, the brain above and brain back . The midbrain is the highest part of the brain stem , the central connection between the brain and the spinal cord. There are three main parts of the midbrain: the colliculus , the tegmentum, and the cerebral peduncles . Of the 12 cranial nerves, two join directly from the midbrain: the oculomotor motor and the nervestrochlear , which are responsible for the movement of the eyes and eyelids.

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What is the midbrain?

It is a part of the brain known as the midbrain , formed by the trunk of the brain , the cerebellum and the diencephalon . It is located in the lower part of the brain mass and is responsible for the mechanical stability of the body.

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  • Characteristics of the midbrain
  • Location
  • Parties
  • Function
  • Diseases and injuries of the midbrain

Characteristics of the midbrain

The main characteristics of the midbrain are as follows:

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  • It is also known as the midbrain .
  • It arises from the union of the brain region that joins the brainstem and the cerebellum .
  • In its upper part we can find the diencephalon .
  • It has a conduit through which cerebrospinal fluid travels .
  • Provides mechanical stability to the body.
  • It transmits sensory impulses from the spinal cord to the brain regions.
  • It goes through Silvio’s duct , through which cerebrospinal fluid flows.
  • Inside it has nuclei that are responsible for eye movements.

Location

The midbrain is one of the main parts that we can find in the brain . It is located in the upper area, on the bridge of Varolio , and exactly below the diencephalon , and it is a structure that is mainly composed of the thalamus and the hypothalamus . It is the part of the brainstem that is closest to the center of the brain, while the pons and the medulla oblongata are more oriented towards the spinal cord.

Parties

The two parts that make up the midbrain are the following: the tectum and the tegmentum.

Tectum

It is located in the dorsal part of the midbrain , channeled towards the nape. The term etymologically means “roof.” All its functions are closely related to the automatic reactions that occur in front of auditory and sound stimuli .

The tectum is made up of two pairs of lumps , one located on top of the other. These lumps are known as colliculi . The superior play an important role in vision and orientation eyes taking with regard to visual stimuli. The lower ones are related to involuntary reactions to sounds .

Tegmentum

It is located in the ventral part of the midbrain . It contains three main areas, each of which is associated with a color: the black substance , the periaqueductal gray substance and the red nucleus.

The substantia nigra is a substance that is located in the upper area of ​​the midbrain whose function is mainly associated with movements and muscle tone . The red nucleus has important functions in the motor system of the body and the gray matter is located around the Silvio duct and participates in the analgesic processes in general .

Function

The main function of the midbrain is the conduction and proper control of the motor impulses that go from the cerebral cortex to the junction of the spinal cord and the brain . It is responsible for generating all the sensory impulses that are displayed through the spinal cord.

There is a part in the midbrain known as the superior quadrigeminal tubercles whose function is to generate the movements made by the eye globules and which arise as a sensory response to stimuli originating from the sense of sight. The inner quadrigeminal tubers are responsible for recording auditory stimuli and the different movements that we make with the head and that are related to them.

Diseases and injuries of the midbrain

Any type of injury to the human body that affects the brain can also damage the midbrain . In general , when it is affected, it produces states of coma and death . This because it is related to the basic physiological functions of the body and the nerve impulses of neurons.

The main pathologies that occur related to the midbrain are:

  • Alzheimer’s disease : it is one of the neurodegenerative diseases that occurs most frequently, it is a chronic and irreversible disorder that causes the deterioration of mental faculties.
  • Parkinson’s disease : it is considered as the most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer’s that affects the voluntary movements of the body. It is not a disease that can be cured, but there are treatments to alleviate the symptoms it presents and slow down the physical and cognitive deterioration suffered by patients who suffer from it.

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