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Mexico’s independence

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The Independence of Mexico was one of the several that achieved the union of liberating revolutionaries from different countries together with the inspiration provided by the North American continent, without a doubt they were valuable entities to give rise to wanting to leave the freedom of the Spanish monarchy that in that then it dominated Mexico.

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  • When was it:  From 09/16/1810 to 09/27/1821
  • Where was it:  Viceroyalty of New Spain

What is the Independence of Mexico?

The Independence of Mexico was a very interesting armed and social process in the events that it had to reach the goal of emancipation from the Spanish , it had international support and faithful leaders of freedom for Mexico who helped put an end to the colonial period and that every corner of the country would forget the viceroyalty concept once and for all.

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Definition

The Independence of Mexico was an approximate period of 11 years to achieve independence, its beginning was in 1810 in the early morning of September 16 when Father Miguel Hidalgo gave rise to a social revolution with the call of  “Grito de Dolores” and culminates the September 27, 1821 with the triumphal entry of the Trigarante Army that was led by Agustín de Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero, whose process was the sole objective of removing Mexico from Spanish rule, which at that time was called New Spain.

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Background

For almost three centuries Mexico was colonized by the Spanish , it was from the 16th century that they began to fill every space of the territory and the Aztecs that were the native population were tremendously exploited , dominated and enslaved by this empire that was led by the Spanish Hernán Cortés .

They explored and exported everything they could from this population, they named it the Viceroyalty of New Spain, they began to impose on the natives their laws from Spain that clearly the only ones who were benefited with these norms were the Spaniards themselves, for Therefore, after a long time of injustice and exploitation, they were leading the people to engender an immense desire to want to fight for their full and political freedom . This helped with Masonic ideals inculcated at the time and with the French Revolution that it greatly influenced that political feeling that in the long run generated many processes and struggles.

Causes of the Independence of Mexico

Among its causes are:

Internal

  •  In the process of colonization of Mexico , many indigenous people were killed both by wars and by diseases carried by the Spaniards themselves.
  • The remaining indigenous population was extremely poor and still had to pay tribute since the 18th century causing much disagreement and various conflicts.
  • Also the decrease in wealth of the white Creoles living in Mexico were affected by the instability that Spain was going through.
  • In society the Indians and mestizos occupied the last place and were exploited by the Spanish colonies and by the Creole whites themselves.

External

  • Spain was suffering the consequences of the war with England.
  • The Bourbon reforms directly affected New Spain.
  • The 13 colonies ( United States ) had presented their independence in 1176 and served as an impetus for Mexico.
  • The Enlightenment ideas that traveled the world that went against any government such as that of Spain .

Process of Independence of Mexico

The process of Independence of Mexico can be summarized in 3 stages:

  • (1810 – 1815): It begins with Napoleon Bonaparte and his invasion of the Spanish Empire simultaneously generated revolts in New Spain with the Grito de Dolores of father Hidalgo whose uprising began supporting King Fernando VII who supported Latin American emancipations and defending religion that it was being attacked by the French. The father was shot and his movements that generated his cry of revolution were dissolved
  • (1814 – 1820): It begins when they manage to expel Napoleon from Spain thanks to King Ferdinand VII who returned to power , with one other insurgents but who did not put the empire at risk in New Spain, the Viceroy reached an agreement to forgive all the faults of the people and several placated their position. In 1817 there was an uprising that was led by Francisco Xavier Mina and Servando Teresa de Mier who transported 300 volunteers from England and America but were defeated.
  • (1820 – 1821): In Spain it occurred in an uprising by the freemason Rafael de Riego and forced King Fernando to sign a liberal constitution in 1812 , when this is known in Mexico, the white Creoles who were in favor of the viceroyalty joined with the Indians and mestizos to fight against the Spanish empire . The February 24, 1821 until September 27 was when they triumphantly entered the new Mexico City led by the former royalist Agustín Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero.

Consequences of the Independence of Mexico

The main consequences of the Independence of Mexico are:

  • Because most of the people went to war , labor, the main source of wealth, was neglected.
  • There was no plan for after Mexico was free , thus bringing many coups.
  • Social hierarchies are over .
  • Slavery was abolished .
  • The Independence of Mexico was a great economic loss for Spain .
  • The commercial and agrarian elites assumed political command , but ruling only in favor of their interests.

Timeline

  • 1800–1810Conspiracy of Querétaro to rise up against the viceroyalty.
  • September 16, 1810 : Father Miguel Hidalgo gives the Cry in Dolores to begin the Mexican independence struggle.
  • 1811 : On the well-known Calderón bridge, the Indians and peasants are defeated and Hidalgo is captured, shot and beheaded, hanging his head
  • 1815 : José María Morelos was defeated , taken prisoner and shot.
  • 1817 : Francisco Xavier Mina, Mier and Vicente Guerrero rose up in the fight for Independence.
  • 1821 : Juan de O’Donojú signed the Córdoba treaty that ratified the Iguala Plan.
  • September 1821 : The Trigarante army makes its triumphal entry into the new Mexico City, and is proclaimed an independent country.

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