Martin Heidegger is widely recognized as one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20th century, and at the same time one of the most controversial . Considered the father of existentialism, his thinking has contributed to fields as diverse as phenomenology , existentialism , hermeneutics , political theory , psychology, and theology . His critique of traditional metaphysics and his opposition to positivism and technological dominationworld have been adopted by leading theorists of postmodernity. On the other hand, his participation in the Nazi movement provoked a stormy debate. Although he never claimed that his philosophy was related to politics , political considerations overshadowed his philosophical work .
- When was he born: 09/26/1889
- Where he was born: Messkirch, Germany
- When he died: 05/26/1976
- Where he died: Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
Who was Martin Heidegger?
He was a German philosopher and intellectual who stood out mainly for the precision with which he expressed himself and for his contribution to the humanist philosophical current , and for his support for the German nationalism of Nazism.
- Biography of Martin Heidegger
- Thought of Martin Heidegger
- Works by Martin Heidegger
Biography of Martin Heidegger
Martin Heidegger was born on September 26, 1889 in Messkirch, Germany . In 1903 he went to secondary school in Konstanz and then, in 1906, he moved to Freiburg . His interest in philosophy was born during his studies in Freiburg when, at the age of seventeen, he read Franz Brentano’s book On the Multiple Meaning of Being According to Aristotle .
In 1909, he became a Jesuit novice and then entered the University of Freiburg , where he studied theology but left the seminary in 1911 and did not continue his training for the priesthood. He studied philosophy , mathematics, and natural sciences . It was also at this time that Edmund Husserl first influenced him. He studied the Logical Investigations of Husserl and in 1913 he obtained a Ph.D. in philosophy with a dissertation on The Doctrine of Judgment in Psychologism under the direction of the neo-Kantian philosopher Heinrich Rickert .
During World War I Martin Heidegger was drafted into the army, but was discharged after two months for health reasons. He taught for a time mainly courses in Aristotelian and scholastic philosophy , and considered himself in the service of the Catholic worldview .
In 1916, Heidegger worked with Edmund Husserl and married Thea Elfride Petri , a Protestant student in 1915. His career was again interrupted by military service in 1918. After his return to Freiburg, he announced his break with Catholicism and was appointed Husserl’s assistant.
In 1930 with the arrival of Hitler to power, Martin Heidegger became politically involved and was elected rector of the University of Freiburg and believed that he could lead the Nazi movement in the right direction.
In 1923, he was appointed associate professor at the University of Marburg where he taught courses on the history of philosophy, time, logic, phenomenology , Plato , Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Kant, and Leibniz. Heidegger died on May 26, 1976 and was buried in the Messkirch cemetery.
Thought of Martin Heidegger
His thinking is based on the philosophy that fully determined the meaning of being , making man an entity full of privileges who should be asked about being, since he maintains a specific relationship with it. He opposed the modern philosophy that explained how people had to face a foreign world , because for him, the human being is defined by the relationship he maintains with the world that is more practical than theoretical.
Martin Heidegger focused on studying metaphysics and made great contributions in this regard because he would address the study of the entire history of this matter.
Among the main contributions of Martin Heidegger we can mention the following:
- Studies of the human being as a social individual and phenomenological studies.
- He gave great contributions in research studies in qualitative methodology maintaining the relationship with the individual and his environment.
- He gave great importance to Historicism, Hermeneutics and Phenomenology to give meaning to things.
- He defined thought and knowledge as producing aspects of science.
It was a philosophical movement that was responsible for highlighting the importance of existence , freedom and the ability to choose freely. They thought that there was no objective or rational basis to be able to defend moral decisions . He contemplated the human being seen from his own perspective , for the existentialist, the man was in his existence and in the ability he had to wonder about his own being , about his existence, in order to be in relation to other human beings and things in the world. world.
Works by Martin Heidegger
His most important book was called “Being and Time” , it is considered one of the best books in the area of philosophy and one of the most discussed from the point of view of existentialism and deconstruction. In the book, the question of being and the phenomenological method is addressed.
In addition, Martin Heidegger wrote a large number of books and works among which we mention the following:
- The proposition of the foundation
- Correspondence and other documents of the legacies
- Country road
- Letter on Humanism
- Art and Poetry
- Introduction to metaphysics
- Forest paths
- Of the essence of truth
Some of the most famous phrases of Martin Heidegger are the following:
- You cannot prove anything in the realm of thought; but thought can explain many things.
- Philosophy implies a free mobility in thought, it is a creative act that dissolves ideologies.
- There is only world where there is language.
- Very soon television, to exert its sovereign influence, will go through all the machinery and all the bustle of human relationships in every way.
- Whoever thinks big has to make a big mistake.