Mariana Pineda , a woman who had a very short life, full of tragedies and an extremely unjust death . But despite the tragedies that he experienced in his life, he managed to become an important myth and a symbol of freedom . A woman who was quiet while the absolutist governments reigned and who was also magnified and praised by the liberal and progressive governments , became a source of inspiration as a woman who fought for freedom in Spain.
- When was he born: 09/01/1804
- Where he was born: Granada, Spain
- When he died: 05/26/1831
- Where he died: Granada, Spain
Who was Mariana Pineda?
Mariana Pineda is considered a heroine of the cause of Spanish freedom , who was sentenced to death for not wanting to expose her collaborators and who maintained her ideas of freedom during the 19th century.
- Biography of Mariana Pineda
- Process to Mariana Pineda
- Mariana Pineda’s relationships
- Construction site
- Mariana Pineda quotes
Biography of Mariana Pineda
He was born in Granada on September 1, 1804. His parents never married and his childhood was surrounded by complicated situations. Her father signed a document for her when he learned that she suffered from a chronic illness and denounced Mariana’s mother for having appropriated assets on behalf of her daughter. When her father died she was given to a paternal uncle , but he married and delegated his responsibilities to a known couple .
In 1819 she married Manuel de Peralta and in 1822, Mariana was left a widow and in charge of her children. He was in charge of helping and welcoming into his home members of the liberal party who were persecuted by Fernando VII .
In 1827 Mariana returned to Granada and maintained relations with the liberal conspirators , for which she was accused but was released. The following year, Commander Fernando Álvarez de Sotomayor , Manuel de Peralta’s cousin , was sentenced to death for which Mariana introduced a friar’s habit in jail with which he could escape disguised. She was charged but her involvement could not be proven.
Process to Mariana Pineda
The process of Mariana Pineda began with her arrest at the hands of the mayor of the crime, Pedrosa , who found her in her house with a flag that supposedly was a sign of an uprising against the government . She was first held in her home under the custody of the guards, tried to escape but was caught by a guard. Many historians claim that Pedrosa took the matter personally because he was in love with her and it was not reciprocated.
During the trial, I was accused of having at home the symbol of an uprising in against the king and his paternal monarchical government . For this reason he was charged with the crime of rebellion against order and against the king, which was punishable by death .
Despite the efforts of her lawyer, Mariana was sentenced to death , and the movement to free her failed to arrive in time. After her death, she became a martyr and a symbol of the fight against the lack of freedom .
Mariana Pineda’s death sentence began when the embroiderers , being pressured by the mayor of the crime, gave the flag to Mariana, who had commissioned it. At that moment, Pedrosa’s agents had the evidence to arrest her at her home and, after she tried to escape, open a criminal process sentencing her to capital punishment .
Mariana Pinera was executed in Granada, in the Plaza del Triunfo on May 26, 1831 . She thought to her end that her ideological co-religionists would not abandon her and try to free her, while she was taken to the Lower Prison, in front of the cathedral, but she was beaten to death . She was buried in an unnamed grave, but an anonymous person pointed at her with a cross and thanks to this she could be identified. For twenty years his remains were the inspiration for pilgrimage until in 1856 they were deposited in the cathedral of Granada , where they have been resting ever since.
He was born into a noble family in Granada, his father was Mariano Pineda Ramírez who worked as a navy captain and his mother was named María de los Dolores Muñoz . When she was orphaned as a very young girl, she was left in the custody of her paternal uncle, José Pineda.
Mariana Pineda’s relationships
When he was only 14 years old, in 1818, he met a soldier who was already retired from the army and who suffered from health problems, this man was called Manuel de Peralta y Valle , and Mariana fell madly in love with him. On 9 October 1819 they decided to get married with great urgency, since 31 March following Mariana had her first child. Manuel de Peralta died in 1822 and left Mariana a widow and with a son, when she was only 18 years old. She also had a relationship with José de la Peña , a lawyer with whom she had a daughter.
Two children were born from the marriage between Mariana Pineda and Manuel Peralta, although one of them died at a very young age, José María and Úrsula María , however, Mariana was widowed very quickly because she was only 18 years old when her husband died. In 1829, Mariana had a girl as a result of her relationship with the lawyer José de la Peña, who took a long time to legally recognize his own daughter.
The importance that Mariana Pineda had is based on the fact that she managed to become a myth and a symbol of freedom through her ideas. Despite having been silenced by absolutist governments , celebrated by liberal and progressive governments , the figure of Mariana Pineda became an inexhaustible source of inspiration for both poets and playwrights , as well as for those who followed her ideas and her life.
Mariana Pineda constitutes a clear and accurate example of the fight for freedom in Spain . And she was a woman who broke with all the roles assigned to the female sex that had been imposed in her time.
In 1924, Federico García Lorca , a renowned writer, wrote a play whose main voice was that of Mariana Pineda Muñoz , a woman sentenced to death in the 19th century for her defense of liberal ideas . The first premiere in 1927 was made at the Goya Theater in Barcelona. The main role was played by Margarita Xirgu and the sets were designed by Dalí .
This play represents a play in which, in addition to observing the virtues of the poet, a protagonist is shown carrying the liberal flag for Don Pedro de Sotomayor , his lover and leader of the revolutionary movement . Don Pedro meets with other conspirators at Mariana’s house, but the arrival of the government authority makes them escape. Pedrosa tries to get Mariana to agree to his love requirements in exchange for releasing her but she does not give in, so she is arrested , sentenced to death and confined in a convent.
Mariana Pineda quotes
Some of his most recognized phrases were the following:
- I will never consent to go to the gallows with my stockings down.
- The memory of my torture will do more for our cause than all the flags of the world.
- Never will an indiscreet word escape my lips to compromise anyone. I have plenty of courage to face the final trance. I would unhesitatingly prefer a glorious death to cover myself with disgrace by exposing a living person.