Louis XIV , also known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, ruled his country, mainly from his great palace at Versailles , during one of its brightest periods. Today it remains the symbol of the absolute monarchy and internationally, it spread to the eastern borders of France at the expense of the Habsburgs and then, in the War of the Spanish Succession , it entered into a hostile European coalition in order to secure the throne for her grandson.
- When was he born: 09/05/1638
- Where he was born: Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France
- When he died: 09/01/1715
- Where he died: Versailles, France
Who was Louis XIV?
Louis XIV is considered one of the most important kings in French history who managed to form an absolutist and centralized regime which was the prototype of the absolute monarchy that occurred in Europe.
- What did
- Biography of Louis XIV
- Reign of Louis XIV
- Physical appearance of Louis XIV
- Why did they call him the Sun King
- Phrases of Louis XIV
- Presence in popular culture
He directed resources to the public finances to control agricultural production , manufacturing and foreign trade suffered significant taxes that went directly to the public coffers. He got France to be respected in the field of foreign policy by participating in three major wars : the Dutch War, the Nine Years’ War, and the War of the Spanish Succession .
Biography of Louis XIV
Louis XIV was born on September 5, 1638 in Saint-Germaine-en-Laye , France, and was christened Louis-Dieudonné-French . On May 14, 1643, when he was only 4 and a half years old, his father passed away. Not long after, still a small child, Louis XIV succeeded his father to the throne, becoming the leader of 19 million French subjects and a very unstable government. While still very young, Louis XIV was trained as a leader , receiving a practical education rather than an academic one . Louis XIV’s godfather, Prime Minister Cardinal Jules Mazarin , was responsible for Louis’ mentorship inhistory , politics and the arts.
In 1648, the Parliament of Paris rebelled against its prime minister, Mazarin . Trying to overthrow the crown a civil war arose, the Fronde , during which he suffered many hardships, poverty and hunger . Mazarin defeated the rebels in 1653. Mazarin began building an elaborate administration when Louis XIV had come of age, although he did not question Mazarin’s authority. On June 7, 1654 , after the War of the Fronds, he was crowned King of France in the cathedral of Reims. In 1660 he married the daughter of the King of Spain , Marie-Thérèse of Austria ensuring the ratification of the peace treaty that Mazarin had tried to establish with the Habsburgs in Spain .
Its glow began to fade after a hunting trip, when he felt intense pain in his leg . His doctor diagnosed him with sciatica , but very soon black spots began to appear, resulting in senile gangrene from gout . On August 25, he was forced to stay in bed, from which he could not get out any more. On the 26th , the gangrene reached the bone , the day on which he received his great-grandson and five-year-old heir , the future Louis XV, and whom he warned against the war: “It is the ruin of the peoples!”. Louis XIV entered a semi-coma state on the 31st and died on September 1 in the morning, four days before his 77th birthday.
Reign of Louis XIV
During his reign he managed to achieve many of the purposes that he had set for himself and gave France valuable land. His reign was full of an administrative centralization that always favored the bourgeoisie, who had access to the Council of State . During his reign there were a large number of wars that antagonized many of the neighboring powers. He installed the Palace of Versailles and had great problems with the Protestants .
He revoked the edict of Nantes by exiling thousands of people, thus provoking the rebellion of the Camisards . Their wars modified the military system and filled it with rigorous disciplines full of demands.
Physical appearance of Louis XIV
There is no exact record of his appearance but it is known that he was a very neat and full of appearances . He was always groomed and shaved , even by breakfast. She wore a host of different natural hair wigs and high heels to disguise her short stature . It is said that he suffered from gonorrhea, gout and stones, typhoid fever and dental problems , so much so that his breath was terrible.
Louis XIV was a man of strong temperament and very passionate in everything he did, he was energetic, not very proud and not at all selfish . He had a great passion for the affairs of the kingdom, he was persevering and constant. He was an intellectual man, highly skilled on the battlefield, full of patience and method . Intelligent and highly skilled in dealing with foreign affairs , in organizing the central government, and in establishing theocratic power .
His mother was the Spanish Habsburg Queen Anne of Austria , and his father was Louis XIII, King of France .
His first wife was named María Teresa of Spain , and he married her on June 9, 1680, his first wife died on July 30, 1683 due to an unknown illness . Two years later, Louis XIV married again, but this time, he did it to Madame de Maintenon , who was not a woman who belonged to high society, and for this reason they married secretly . Louis XIV was married to his second wife until the day of his death .
His offspring are as follows:
With Maria Teresa of Austria
- Luis of France or Dolphin of France.
- Ana Isabel from France.
- Maria Ana from France.
- Maria Teresa of France.
- Felipe Carlos of France.
- Luis Francisco from France.
With Luisa de La Vallière.
- Carlos de Borbón.
- Felipe de Borbón.
- Maria Ana de Borbón.
- Luis de Borbón.
With Madame de Montespan he had seven children:
- Luisa Francisca de Borbón.
- Luis Augusto de Borbón.
- Luis César de Borbón.
- Luisa Francisca de Borbón.
- Luisa María Ana de Borbón.
- Francisca Maria.
- Luis Alejandro.
With Claudia de Vin des Œillets
- Louise de Maisonblanche.
With María Angélica de Scorailles he had two children:
- A son who died shortly after birth.
- A daughter dead at birth.
Why did they call him the Sun King
He was known as the sun king due to his long term of 72 years. He was also known for being the greatest exponent of absolutism and absolute monarchy , which is why he managed to make France a centralized regime. He was also called this way because of his brilliance in his court and because he maintained that he was the representative of God on earth, which is why he took the sun as an emblem.
The importance of Louis XIV lies in his reign, which is considered the largest and most important in the history of France . He ended many years of rivalry when he placed a Bourbon on the Spanish throne . He managed to place France in a very important position before Europe , adding a total of ten provinces to its territory and an empire . The rise of French power and influence made Europe admire France and its culture .
Phrases of Louis XIV
The following phrases were pronounced by Louis XVI:
- For those who can control themselves, there are few things that can resist
- I am the state.
- I would have praised you more if you had praised me less.
- The first feelings are always the most natural.
- I am leaving, but the state will always remain.
- Every time I fill a vacancy, I get a hundred discontents and one ungrateful.
- Before I would agree to the whole of Europe, than to two women.
Some curiosities about Louis XIV are:
- He broke the record of permanence in power , as he ruled France for 72 years, 3 months and 18 days.
- He was a king who began to rule when he was only 4 years old , his mother Anne of Austria made decisions with the help of Mazarin.
- It had approximately, according to historians, 1000 wigs and 413 beds .
- Her stature was much shorter than she appeared, as she always appeared in high- heeled shoes and a wig .
Presence in popular culture
Some films that have been recorded in honor of Louis XIV are:
- The death of Louis XIV
- The king’s passion
- Louis XIV
Books have also been written that tell their story such as:
- The century of Louis XIV
- Louis XIV, the sun king
- Lovers and extravagance at the court of Louis XIV at Versailles