What is literature? Definition Characteristics Concept


When we speak of literature, we refer to a type of artistic expression that is based mainly on the use of oral language and written language . In this sense, the author of literary works uses the word as the means that will serve to express a feeling, dream, desire, idea, event or experience, which may well be real or fictitious.


Literature as a concept also applies to the means of expression of a language , a set of knowledge and a set of productions typical of a specific space and time.


Definition of literature 

We can define literature as an artistic activity whose way of expression is language . The concept also allows defining a group of literary productions that are born in a country, a particular genre or in a period of time. Literature is defined as a verbal expression that includes written texts, as well as sung texts or spoken texts.


The first form of literature that was known is oral transmission , hence the literature defines both orality and writing. Literature is an art and therefore it is brought together with other arts that have an aesthetic purpose.

Meaning of literature  

The word Literature comes from the term litterae , which in Latin refers to a selection of knowledge for reading and writing , which is how it is also coined to meanings related to learning itself or grammar. Thus, the author makes aesthetic use of the word in order to develop a literary work or production, whether spoken or written. Due to its etymology, literature is related to culture and that is why it has been brought together within the artistic field.

Although although the concept and meaning of literature has changed over time due to its subjective nature, it is still considered that literary works must have an intellectual or aesthetic value.

Literary Canon: What is not literature?

The literary canon is the medium on which a model is measured and built that defines everything that is and is not literature . In this sense, the literary canon brings together a list of classic works that, despite time, continue to be read with great interest and enjoy artistic prestige, considered fundamental works for the teaching of literature. This type of work becomes inescapable references of a particular culture and of universal culture, capable of stimulating literary reading.

It is important to note that there is no universally accepted definition of the literary canon , since it has been the subject of extensive discussions regarding its provenance, literary components, among other aspects. However, the criterion prevails that it must be aesthetic excellence that allows a work to reach this level.

So what is not literature? A text is non-literary when its purpose is informative, expository or instructive, so that scientific, academic, instructional articles, newspaper articles, chronicles, advertising texts, informative letters, web page content, etc. are not part of literature. . They do not carry wonderful or fictional content

Language and literature (introduction)

Language refers to the system of signs that has specific characteristics, that is, the linguistic code, the vowels and the way in which they articulate. The language is governed by rules within a community that knows and uses them on a daily basis. It is an essential part of language. Thus, it becomes the means of humanity for expression and communication, and of literature as its immediate means of expression in a given area.

Characteristics of the literature 

Among the main characteristic points of literature , we find that it is an ancient artistic expression. In fact, the oldest work that has been found is the Poem of Gilgamesh.

Literature is composed of literary genres that give rise to other types of literature that have spread throughout the world. The language used in each of the works fulfills a poetic function within the language. It is a production that is born from the creativity and originality of each of the authors, who for creation can be based on sensations, experiences, historical events, feelings and others. On the other hand, literature is studied from literary theory, which allows, among other things, to analyze the structure of its discourse and composition in general.

As we mentioned, not everything that is written or said is considered literature, it must be based on the literary canon and the function of the text to determine if it is or not.

Literary movements 

What literary movements refer to a number of works of literature that are created in a specific period and also share elements in terms of themes, ideology, styles, among other key issues. Thus, within the literary currents, a large number of authors stand out who begin to put reality on the table from their social, cultural and political context, according to a specific space and time.

It is important to bear in mind that several of the literary movements have contact and some of them coincide with other artistic expressions that take place, in this case with fundamental fields such as painting and music, where the strength of literary currents is evident.

The literary movements are: classicism, renaissance, neoclassicism, realism, medieval, baroque, romanticism, modernism, postmodernism, avant-garde and post-avant-garde.

Literary genres 

Literature, from its consolidation, begins to be divided into categories historically , although it should be mentioned that another part of this organization is directly related to the writing and content of these literary manifestations. Because it has worked this way throughout history, it has undergone changes and multiple forms of classification.

Thus, literary genres are the classes in which literary texts are divided, which have a specific purpose and a specific concept that is in which they are developed. In turn, each of these genres has subgenres into which they are divided and which share key characteristics.

Within the literary genres, particularly within the narrative genre with subgenres such as the novel, the short story and poetry, the types or classes of literature emerge, which allow a work to be classified with much more specific characteristics of distinction. Thus, in the first measure, two essential categories are distinguished: oral literature, linked to popular beliefs transmitted through the spoken word and written literature, which appears through physical forms, since its inception with the tablets of clay and figures on rocks and walls.

After this, comes a second classification that includes non-fiction literature, which is made from facts and fiction or fiction literature, which is permeated with inventions up to certain aspects.

Hence, other types of literature are derived such as: fantasy literature, children’s literature, youth literature, erotic literature, realistic fiction literature, cult literature, romantic literature, futuristic literature, gray literature, feminist literature, gothic literature, horror literature , police literature.

The origin of literature at an exact time and place remains a mystery to experts. Literary history is based on the dissemination of events that have taken place in the world from times or stages, these being expressed in written or related form.

Pre-classical period (19th century BC – VII BC)

During this moment, the human being tries to give an explanation to the origin of the universe and the world in which he inhabits from supernatural beings. These will be characteristics of the time that will leave marked in the literary field expressing, also, the relationships of the human being and nature, added to the natural phenomena to which they also seek to explain, the origin of peoples, human behavior and the relationship of the human being and God. This period is located in Middle Eastern countries such as Egypt and Judea, but also in India and China.

It is in the pre-classical era where legends, myths and other works are born that will later give rise to epic songs and epics (of which we will speak in literary genres).

At this time begins the development of Latin culture and Greek culture. The concerns of human beings revolve around rationality, the universe and the world, where literary expression will be endowed with predominant languages. Thus, literature will take on more defined characteristics based on its forms and content. Other elements that will emerge at this time will be the classification of the works according to the narration of historical events and the description of human prototypes.

Its main center of development will be Greece, the place where the most important epics of world literature will emerge, such as “The Odyssey” and “The Iliad”, which carry content of mythical and legendary events. Thus, this culture is mainly due to the classification of literary works in literary genres.

Christianity begins to gain strength in the West and in this sense cultural manifestations will be characterized by bringing content around religious activity, expressing the ideals of the Christian religion, including the duration of life, religious morality, the contemplation of God, divine punishments, among other aspects, all of them governed by the theocentric vision.

However, artistic manifestations, including literature, will come into contact with the popular classes and the cult begins to shape a symbiosis that combines religion with paganism. Literature is divided between cultured literature with the preservation of ancient texts produced by clergymen, bearing the name of “Mester de clerecía”, and oral tradition literature that will reflect everyday life and popular imagination.

By this time, the literature will be based on the study of classical Greco-Roman antiquity. The anthropocentric vision of the world will be united with an open and applied rationalistic attitude to life. The human being will be exalted in artistic expressions, while it will be the theater that shows the religious crisis that arises at this moment by the Reformation. Mystical poetry will stand out at this time, planting communion with God, the narrative will be key and one of the most important works “The Divine Comedy” by Dante will emerge, and the lyric gives way to courtly poetry with the figures of idealized love and nature. Other fundamental references for the development of literature appear, such as Lope de Vega, William Shakespeare and Tirso de Molina.

Known as the literature of the baroque, at this time, the literary field will be impregnated with an excess of ornaments that will enter into communication with the use of literary figures and with the secrecy of the language. This moment that arises in Europe, mainly in Spain, since it was born as religious art, will later be divided into conceptism and culteranismo. The first of them defined by the intention of intensifying the expression with verses and prose, as part of the lyric. While culteranismo will be the current that focuses on the meaning of the words, also known as cultismo.

After the Baroque era, a concern arises among artists to return to the imitation of classical models, including the models of expression and approaches that literature had, a moment also known as neoclassicism. The main characteristic of the time will be the dominance of reason in the arts, a moment that will give rise to the pedagogical ideal of literature for teaching using it as a medium.

At this time other genres and components of literature will be born, such as the essay and the fable, where the content and the form of expression continue to be used in the same models. The adventure novel also arises, it is the space for the development of classical theater in France and other key ideas appear for the development of the ideas of the illustration, opening the door to romanticism in literature.

Although it began on the European continent, this moment also extended to America due to the wars of independence that arose there. Thus, what is also known as literary romanticism comprises the literary school that focused on a spirit that highlights subjectivism, expresses the predominance of feelings over reason, the union and contemplation of nature and the general breakdown of the rules. .

The romantics, precursors of this literary school, establish that the works that are developed should not necessarily be subject to reality, but must express the mood of the writer, since the content is more important than the way in which it is carried out. . The refuge of his own “I” will be one of the most important characteristics of literary creation that does not exempt him from the events of reality.

At this time, realistic literature and naturalistic literature emerged, which produced productions evidencing other types of evaluations where objectivism, positivism, science and other aspects within the life of the human being prevail.

During this time, the literature that is produced is subject to the search for formal perfection, in such a way that it moves away from reality and lodges in the fantastic world, resorting to characters such as princesses and princes, also drawing spaces with remote landscapes . Here the concept of “art for art’s sake” arises. For modernist literature it will be important to maintain form over content.

It is important to bear in mind that the lyrical movement belongs to Latin America, giving rise to the exotic that unites symbols that are part of classical antiquity. It was a short-lived time but considered a literary school that expanded substantially in the field of poetry.

This moment is characterized by an intense development of literary technique, as well as production methods that emerged in the middle of the 19th century mixed with the methods of the beginning of the 20th century. Aspects such as new theories of language, the development of socialist ideas, world wars, the emergence of psychoanalysis, among others, will give particularities to literature.

An important reference of the time is Ferdinand de Saussure, who will say that words are signs that serve to express reality but do not coincide with the essence of each of the objects, which will open the door to forms of artistic expression that involve the discoveries and other conflicts in movements, which became known as the “avant-garde”.

For its part, the avant-garde will be responsible for including progress and technological products with new narrative techniques, creating experimental techniques in relation to the use of language, the creation of words, the creation of terms, among other activities.

This moment will give rise to modern literature in which the literature of postromanticism, modernism, postmodernism and the literary avant-gardes will also emerge.

Although before we saw a bit of its history and origin of literature, each part of the world experienced the art of literature in a different way, so we will make a short summary.

Literature in the Middle East

We begin in this area of ​​the world, since the first types of text were developed in it due to the development of the main cities. These texts appear on clay tablets with varied content, such as mythological themes, among the most important, as well as love-type texts. Sumerian literature is the oldest literature of all that is known to this day, since it was precisely the Sumerians who created the first writing system that began to form with cuneiform logograms until it reached the development in the syllabic writing system. However, it is important to bear in mind that Sumerian literature begins in an oral literature phase and it is only until 2600 BC that it begins to be represented in writing. The legendary events narrated within the epic literature of this time,

For their part, the Phoenicians will have a strong influence on Hebrew literature or Hebrew literature, mainly due to the variety that will appear in this field. However, after the Hellenistic conquest of the Middle East and another series of events such as the Roman conquest of Carthage, the information available has been substantially reduced.

It is in Eastern literature where the first manifestations of literary genres appear that will later be consolidated within the field of literature, especially in Sanskrit literature, which will be characterized by its religious character and use within the liturgy. The best known and oldest is the Rig-Veda, a series of hymns dedicated to the gods that will give an account of the manifestations of the Indo-European peoples. Also at this time Vedic literature will emerge with works such as Upanishada, epic literature that was transmitted orally with legendary acts that also narrate the adventures of the gods and other figures. In this area, the Ramayana de Valmiki and the Mahabharata stand out.

It is one of the most important manifestations in the literary field, since it is one of the most important references in writing, which begins with a symbolism from figures that are currently known as hieroglyphs. The hieroglyphs were implemented for the writing of the set of elements that were part of their culture and the history of the inhabitants who gathered on the banks of the Nile River.

Thanks to this series of practices, the world could have knowledge of the pigments that were used for the creation of manuscripts and the production of papyrus, resources that, later, would be key for the development of writing and that facilitate access for all . Egyptian literature was focused, in principle, on the compilation of culture and rituals to pass it from generation to generation. Often his hieroglyphs revolved around themes related to mythology, the proper behavior of the inhabitants, laws and customs. After this, the texts began to be used for educational purposes, so that the language was facilitated for their understanding.

Both Mesopotamian literature, to whom the invention of writing is attributed, and Egyptian literature, were the ones who felt the historical origin and development of writing for the subsequent emergence of literature.

Mesopotamia is credited with the development of writing, which was first pictographic and later phonetic. Little by little the pictographic symbols begin a linearization that will cause the emergence of cuneiform writing, which will be shared by both the Akkadians and the Sumerians. This writing, in its beginnings, was used for administrative purposes of the inhabitants, hence, later, Mesopotamian literature emerged that began to include the explanation of events and the writing of legends to transmit them.

Mesopotamian literature begins from oral literature, where texts were developed in relation to myths and with it the life of the gods, the lamentations that will be songs about catastrophes and war, and hymns, which were sung as praise for gods and kings.

Within literature we find Hebrew literature, which stood out mainly for its productions in verse and prose written in Hebrew by both Jews and non-Jews from the twelfth century BC Hebrew literature had a great importance within literature and within of culture, since it highlights texts of great value such as the Old Testament; one of the divisions of the Bible and the Torah, the latter being fundamental to Hebrew history, its customs and traditions.

Thus, Hebrew literature is constituted as one of the most widely disseminated cultural manifestations in the world. One of the main reasons why it was able to spread is because it was produced at different times in history, although it is in medieval times where it will have its peak and part of the modern era.

Hebrew literature will stand out mainly for having solid religious themes in its content, which, as mentioned, will give rise to the most important works in this language. Little by little it came to be combined with genres of literature, a process that was crucial for the enrichment of literature in several countries such as Italy and Spain.

It is believed that the origin of literature in China appears more than three thousand years ago, given the documents that experts have found, which date from the dynasties, especially the Zhou dynasty that ruled in 1122 BC. C, known as the traditional Chinese dynasty and the second after the Shang dynasty.

It is important to emphasize that Chinese philosophy begins a separate path from Greek philosophy, since, instead of extensive dialogues within its writings, it opts for proverbs that touch on topics fundamentally related to love and respect for nature, but also to the elderly, to parents, to the political order, to the social order and to the religious order. This will be a crucial element within all artistic compositions.

These first manifestations within Chinese literature will be evidenced in bronze vessels, which appear in the Shang dynasty. Among the fields that Chinese literature texts handle are philosophy, poetry compilations, history, and other texts dedicated to oral transmission to future generations. Another notable peculiarity of this literature is that it will not allow any type of foreign influence, since it does not allow the outside world to enter.

Mayan literature 

This type of literature, as in other regions of the world, was used in order to tell the daily life, as well as the relationship with the gods and other elements that were part of their way of seeing the world. However, the arrival of the conquerors will cause the loss of a large part of these works, considering their productions and texts as “demonic” and wrong.

Despite this, Mayan authors did not stop writing and although in principle they continue to use their writing techniques, they soon begin to implement the Roman alphabet. This would be the only way in which they could preserve various elements of their tradition, including songs, prayers, games and speeches that could be passed on to subsequent generations and which have substantial value for the history and heritage of their territories.

The complex writing system developed by the Mayans has prevented it from being fully deciphered. Added to this is religious syncretism and the imposed cultural influences of the conquerors. Among the most important works are the Popol Vuh, one of the texts that survives the conquest of Spain and that includes the description of the creation of the Mayan universe. So are other texts such as Los Libros de Chilam Balam, Rabinal Achí, literary work, among a few others.

It appears around the year 2500 before our era, also considered as a cultured language used by the first Indo-Europeans, which brings together peoples located in eastern Europe and western Asia from the end of the Neolithic. Within the Indo-European languages ​​we find Greek, Italic, Slavic, Sanskrit, Germanic and others that these peoples will use.

Sanskrit literature, as we mentioned, focuses on religious themes and will include wisdom and worship. This is how his productions begin to be considered as the first sacred texts of the Hindu tradition, this being the first religion to appear in India. The oldest texts are divided into samhita, Brahmana, and the Sutra. The first contains hymns dedicated to the priests whose reading was an invitation to attend the sacrifices that were made in their honor. They will include poetic images and their frequent protagonist will be nature, a field that reduces the figure of the human being. It will also include other topics such as domestic rites, funeral songs, wedding songs, rituals for worship, among others.

Second, the Brahmana gather esoteric explanations of sacrifices. Their rapid diffusion was due to the fact that they were produced within the sects of the Vedas, where each one performed them. Its themes gather secret doctrines, considered as key elements of Indian philosophy, search for the origin of time, the soul of the human being, the universe and the divinity. And finally, the Sutra, will be a compilation of formulas on rites and elements varied between astronomy and grammar. Due to their short length, they could be easily memorized, which facilitated the diffusion within Brahmanism as opposed to Buddhism.

Chinese culture, towards the 5th century AD, begins to be transmitted to Japan, however, the creation of literature was very original in relation to its cultural influence. In addition to this, Japan was also influenced by civilization in a general way, including its religion, worldview, political organization, and other activities.

One of the most important characteristics in Japanese literature has to do with the aesthetic trend, since it highlights everything that is elegant and cute, where texts such as Tanka and Haikai stand out. The first text consists of a series of verses that express the poetic tradition with a fine contemplation of nature. The Haiki, for its part, will contain a series of certain verses and syllables, 5-7-5.

The first contact with Japanese literature dates back to European missionaries, but also to 16th century sailors and merchants, after which there were Japanese converts to Catholicism. This fact generated the need to limit the entry of foreigners, so that until the middle of the 19th century they stopped opening the doors to the outside to not receive external influences, seeking to maintain and strengthen the union with ancient traditions.

The first productions of Japanese literature were presented in market poems (influence from China) and in songs. One of the most important texts will be the Kokiki Chronicles, in which events of humanity are portrayed through memory. During the beginning of the 3rd century, a great quantity of poetry was written that reached artistic perfection and that have become one of the strongest references for universal literature. One of the main compilations is the Manyoshu, which brings together about 4,500 poems and is considered, so far, as the most important poetic anthology of Japanese literature.

The classification of this type of literature was divided into two parts. The first stage corresponds to all that literature made before Muhammad, towards the 6th to 7th century AD. At this time the Arabic lyrical songs will emerge, among them the most representative and the one that is preserved is called the Casidas. Short legends, proverbs and poetry also appear, which was transmitted orally from the Ruwat, a kind of medieval troubadour or similar to the Greek rhapsodies.

In this case, the pre-Islamic rhapsodies had a very important function, since when they became writers they also became warriors. This will be fundamental, since within the poetry they elaborated, frequent themes related to courage, struggle and strength will appear, although they will not be the only ones, since poets will also appear with praise for other aspects of their own lives.

The second stage begins with the founding of Islam by Muhammad, who began preaching at the age of 40, inspired by Judaic traditions and elements of Christianity. His practice, although it gathers a large number of faithful, also gathers many enemies, so in 622 he must flee to Mecca. This year of the Hegira marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. By then, he armed himself with a great army to impose his religion and later died. The word of God transmitted to Muhammad through the archangel Gabriel, lives within the holy book called the Koran, which includes the revelations that were written by his disciples.

Greek literature

One of the most important reference points within culture and civilization are the Greeks, and with them their ideas, which have achieved an incredible influence in different areas of the world. Proof of this is Greek literature, in which the characters are born, but also the stereotypes that will be present in all periods of history and likewise, within the great works of universal literature. One of the starting points is the Homer’s epics, a series of epic poems that tell the deeds of heroes, so that texts such as The Iliad and the Odyssey will be the key points of the Greek oral transmission tradition.

It should be taken into account that the geography and the location of the population in small societies favored aspects such as the social, economic and cultural fields, organized in city-states, also known as polis. On the other hand, there is also the Greek mythology, which begins within the Mycenaean culture with dyes that combine Mediterranean and Indo-Germanic elements.

The Greek myths focused on the explanation of the origin of the world, but also on everything that happened on Earth, so they become a direct reference to the legendary past through which they could find a sense of identity with the events. This mythology also functioned as a kind of protection against the vastness, providing them with all the answers they needed. All this set of elements will give rise to a parallel world that will be inhabited by the gods, known as Mount Olympus, but there will also live the demigods and all those heroes who lived with human beings.

The development of Roman culture took the Greek tradition as its main point of reference and many specialists have developed the idea that many of the Roman elements were an imitation of Greek elements. For its part, Roman culture begins with the legend of Romulus and Remus, thus taking a mainly mythological order. With the destruction of Troy, a series of confrontations begins. After several generations, Romulus and Remus are born, descendants of Aeneas. When they grow up, they found the city in the area where they were saved by the she-wolf, since their mother had abandoned them. The election of the governor was placed at the command of the gods, who choose Romulus, who will later assassinate his brother Remus.

The writing of Roman works was done in Latin, which was the natural language of the culture, although there are others made in Greek. This is how Roman literature was born with the acceptance of Latin as an official language, hence it is also called Latin literature. Despite the great influences of Greek culture within the Roman one, the literature of Rome will also be key to enriching universal literature, since in it they initiate a series of changes that will allow the advancement of poetry with elements such as satire.

One of the fundamental characteristics of Roman literature has to do with the transformation of the Roman State, since it had a strong influence on popular opinion. Thus, literature begins to be implemented as a kind of social division that will only allow access to lawyers and not ordinary citizens, who should be limited to the editions that were allowed and produced by their own government. This decision leads many authors to live in anonymity, creating literary works in Rome and included within the stage of primitive Roman literature, although they begin to emerge from obscurity with the development of the literary style.

Another fundamental aspect that should not fail to be mentioned are the genres that arise within Roman literature, since lyrical poetry, epic poetry and Latin theater are worked, which enjoyed great reception, especially comedy, which it took strength mainly. The style of the Roman theater will be key for the presentation of works that did not have a script, since the actions were based on the same story, so that the actions were developed at times narrated and promoted by the same audience, giving shape to theatrical improvisation. The main works of Roman literature will be The Letters to Lucilius of Seneca, The Twelve Caesars of Suetonius, The Aeneid of Virgil, The Art of Loving of Ovid and The Epistle to the Pisones of Horace.

Latin Literature 

As we mentioned, very closely to Roman literature, Latin literature will be seen in its beginnings with a strong relationship to the lives of the saints and another series of works that are part of the historical tradition that is based on faith. One of the main references of this type of literature was Eusebius of Caesarea, known as the father of the history of the church, since his stories were impregnated with historical content about early Christianity.

At this time and at this stage of literature in this region, dramaturgy begins to reduce its participation, however this did not happen with the representations that were made in the Via Crucis and other representations of the mysteries, which focused on the dissemination of the belief of Christianity among the townspeople. Here also arises a broad interest from Muslims, who seek to preserve philosophical writings, but also scientists from Greece, who were unaware of the influence it would have on the development of writing on the European continent.

Literature in Persia begins its development simultaneously with the Renaissance. During this time, a strong boom in tradition continues within cultures, especially linked to production. One of the peculiarities of Persian literature has to do with the normative force, implemented in the literatures that were developed in other Muslim nations. This literature enjoyed a great diffusion due to the extension of the empire, even today it is possible to find works in countries of Central Asia.

Writing, in its beginnings, was used for economic and administrative purposes, which is why it was only the scribes who could implement it and in other cases, members of the clergy. In other spaces, the works were related to religious themes configured in poems and even love stories began to appear. Often the language used will be Greek and Aramaic. However, during this period orality prevailed, which is why very few works of Persian literature are preserved, such as the Rubaiyat, a collection of poems that had a specific structure of four-line stanzas.

French literature

This type of literature arises with the advance of Latin, from which several Romance languages ​​begin to derive that will have the same root in common. This type of literature also developed in other countries under the same language, among which are former French colonies, Canada, Switzerland and Belgium. An important particularity of this type of literature has to do with the fact that it is the product of a union of Oíl languages, a set of Romance languages ​​belonging to territories that are now in France, which predominated in this area.

It was born around the ninth century and the first writings that take place within French literature will be works written in the Romance language. Such is the influence of the works that are developed in this language, that soon their production and dissemination will open the doors to the emergence of new literary movements in the creative field, but also to other fields of art that will appear within universal art and literature. universal.

Italian literature

The literary works that will be produced here will be made in different languages ​​of the nearby regions and it will even use Latin for its productions. A fundamental aspect of Italian literature has to do with the unification of the country, since it influenced this process, in addition, it served as a form of cultural identification and closeness, due to the fragmentation that the nation had suffered.

On the other hand, Italian literature was reinforced by the process of revitalizing religious sentiment, where the pioneer was Saint Francis of Assisi and his faithful, since they began to create a series of lyrical productions and sacred songs that are part of the central area. popular of Italy. In addition, Italian literature begins to be divided into different schools defined by origin and philosophy. A key aspect of this literature is related to the fact that it promoted in an important way the classical style of writing and compositions, largely influenced by myths and cultures from other regions and that served as a reference for writers.

Among the main authors of this process we find Francesco Tetrarca, Dante Alighieri, Nicolás Maquiavelo, Italo Calvino, Umberto Eco, among others.

English literature

This type of literature, which will gain strength with the English language will not directly depend on the origin of those who write it, so that texts of English literature will be found at different times in history, this is one of its main characteristics. On

Another important aspect of English literature has to do with the influences it received from French literature and Italian literature, however, it manages to consolidate its own style that had a great impact in the field of poetry and highlighting leading authors in theater and drama. It is considered one of the richest literatures in genres, since until contemporary times, it highlighted classic and current genres in the development of its works. Among the frequent themes of his works are drama, comedy, fantasy, fiction, satire, theater, prose, autobiography, among others.

Among the most important representatives we find William Shakespeare, Charles Dickens, Oscar Wilde, among others.

This literature begins when it is art that begins to be linked with the reality of peoples and politics, since it arises at a key moment for the rescue of the particularities and myths that emerged from the peoples and their own history. Let us remember that indigenism begins as an anthropological trend focused on indigenous cultures and with this, begins the analysis of discriminatory practices that violate the rights of native peoples.

Thus, his texts will deal mainly with the problems suffered by these peoples in relation to the exploitative practices to which they are subjected as a result of the dominant. One of the most important antecedents of indigenous literature is the text Aves sin nido, a romantic novel that narrates the reality of those dominated by political power, ecclesiastical power and legal power. In general, indigenous literature involves social content, but also mythical content, poetry, ethnic practices, among others, which will even account for religious syncretism and other elements that manage to develop and be preserved after the conquest.

Mexican literature 

This literature brings together all the literary expressions made in Mexican territory or by writers who carried out their works in Mesoamerican territory, especially in the pre-Columbian and colonial stages. Along with Mexican literature, Argentine literature, important sources of American literature, also stands out.

In principle, oral transmission was widely used in the territory to be able to transmit and maintain the narratives of their peoples and mythology, in addition, they had their own writing system that focused on specific uses. In particular, Mexican literature will focus on issues that link the Mexican Revolution, along with a series of aspects that speak about economic inequality, social inequality, poverty, among other related issues.

Among the most important and representative writers of Mexico we find Octavio Paz, Juan Rulfo, Carlos Fuentes, among others.

This literature, unlike others such as Mexican literature, does not contain Amerindian features in its manifestations. This is mainly due to the fact that the records found are about a series of chronicles that were prepared by foreign travelers. Thus, this literature is going to be endowed with elements such as commemorative poetry and prose, and hymns. In Argentina, gaucho literature, that is, literature focused on the gauchos, a kind of cowboy characteristic of this area.

Thus, within the literary manifestations, themes such as victories, chores, sadness, customs, etc. will often be touched, since they will be taken as a fundamental symbol. Subsequently, authors such as Güiraldes and Quiroga, will treat the issues with innovation and will take a look at national development. Finally, Argentine literature will participate in the vanguards with a significant presence of authors.

This field includes all kinds of statements written in Portuguese or written by Portuguese. Its beginnings date back to medieval times, although they also appeared in the Renaissance, at which time several representative figures emerged, including Sá de Miranda, Bernardim Ribeiro, among others who worked on epic poetry. Another of the top representatives of the time is Fernando Pessoa, who was considered one of the great poets of Portugal.

In addition to the lyrical and the epic, other fields of literature such as prose, theater, novel and lyrical poetry are also developed. However, it should be taken into account that Portuguese literature is one of those that little has been estimated during its development due to the little interest that the Spanish had, given the difference in language, as well as the little circulation of Portuguese works, although they begin to approach other areas with the writing of Portuguese stories in Spanish.

This literature will bring together all the literary expressions made in the German-speaking peoples, this one also includes that of Austria and Switzerland. Its beginnings date back to the 8th century and it is strongly linked to the growth of the German nation, as well as its unification process, as it will be evidenced in the 19th and 20th centuries.

German literature in particular enjoys great prestige within universal literature, which is why Germanic deed songs such as the Song of the Nibelungs, the Song of Hildebrando, among others, stand out. Other fields such as court poetry and chivalric poetry were also worked on, which were decisive for the development of other fields later. Other key authors in German literature are Paul Celan, Rainer Maria von Rilke, and Franz Kafka.

Russian literature marks its beginnings with vernacular literature and with a series of texts of a religious nature. However, it is necessary to take into account that, during its development, it also begins with oral transmission, which was practiced in homes and begins to pass from generation to generation, along with another series of elements from Christianity and the oldest paganism and vestiges of Byzantinism. This is how popular stories will be the first manifestations of Russian literature.

When writing began, the moment that began with the illustration, the vast majority of works in Old Russian were anonymous, such as the famous Song of the Hosts, a text published at the end of the 12th century. Later, with the appearance of the Russian vernacular languages, the ecclesiastical Avvakum appears, who will become one of the forerunners of the modern Russian language. Areas such as prose, poetry, novels and children’s literature and youth literature will be worked on.

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