Of the three organs that a government has , the most important place belongs to the legislative power . The role of government begins with the drafting of laws and functions is followed by application of the law and adjudication. As such, this power is regarded as the first body of government.
Is the part of the government that is responsible for creating , developing and modified their laws of a country, also it regulates the rights and responsibilities of citizens, which have been established by the Constitution .
- What does the legislative power consist of?
- Who represents the legislative branch
- Legislative branch by country
What does the legislative power consist of?
The legislative power is the part of the government that is responsible for establishing the laws that govern a territory. The legislative power is the body that approves the laws of the government, which is responsible for formulating the will of the state and granting it authority and legal force . In simple words, it is that body of government that makes laws and that enjoys a very special and important role in all democratic states . It is the assembly of representatives elected by the people and represents national public opinion and power from town.
The main characteristics of the legislative branch are the following:
- It is an assembly where the structuring and formulation of laws of a country is deliberated .
- Manages the state budget .
- Its laws are known as legislation .
- They direct the actions of the government .
- Its members are known by the name of legislators or deputies depending on the country.
- These legislators are popularly elected using the vote .
- Laws can be debated through legislative chambers .
- When a chamber is unique it is called unicameral , when there are two chambers it is bicameral , three chambers tricameral and four chambers it is tetra chamber .
- The number of members may vary from country to country.
The main functions of the Legislative Branch are the following:
- Elaboration of laws with political prudence, so that it is fair , adequate , timely , general for all and that it has durability.
- It has a representation function, which is its main function of the legislative branch, since by means of the vote we elect a representative who will be in charge of raising our interests before Congress .
- Inspect, analyze, verify, examine, record, review, intervene and verify the functioning of the public administration , that is, of the Executive Power .
- Deliberative function , which guarantees the democratic rights of minorities.
- Function Control which balances the democratic state controlling it and calling for surrender of accounts .
- Budgetary function to control the income and expenses of the public treasury.
- It has the function of communication between represented and representatives.
- It must provide information on the legislative task, which allows legislators to produce norms in accordance with the reality, need and possibilities of implementation.
- Administrative function where internal procedures are developed for the organization, diligence and performance of the chambers.
Who represents the legislative branch
The legislative power is represented by the deputies or senators , and these, in turn, represent the people who chose them by means of a free and secret vote.
Some of the powers that the legislative power has are:
- Legislate in matters of national competence and the functioning of the branches of National Power.
- Propose amendments and reforms to the Constitution.
- To control the Government and the National Public Administration, in the terms established in the Constitution and the law .
- Organize and promote citizen participation in matters within its competence.
- Decree amnesties .
- Give authorization for additional credits to the budget.
- Approve plans for the economic and social development of the country.
- Watch over the autonomy and interests of the State.
One of the main antecedents of the legislative power is the Magna Carta of 1215 that was signed by King Juan I, and is the closest thing that exists to the current Political Constitution , in it, is the antecedent of the current democratic system and the limitation of powers due to their separation.
The second important antecedent is the publication of ” The Spirit of Laws “, which was published in France in 1747, and where Montesquieu developed the separation of the powers of the state so that some would control others and stop the abuses that occurred at the time.
With the disappearance of the Roman Empire there was a dispersion of political power and the Church was in charge of legitimizing power in the Middle Ages with the consecration of the kings. In the Middle Ages there were ecclesiastical councils that were the origin of the medieval representative assemblies, and that gave rise to the representative estates and parliamentary bodies in Europe .
Throughout history there were changes that created Greek democracies such as the Athenaeum and at the time of the Roman Republic they originated the Senate . The Houses of Lords and Commons in England in the 14th century are considered the first legislative powers in history. The division of powers, that is to say, the legislative as a power of the State, emerged during the American Revolution and the French Revolution , based on the democratic ideas of Montesquieu .
The importance lies in the fact that it is the power in charge of the creation of laws , that is, their discussion and approval . The importance also lies in the fact that it is a power made up of the representatives of the people who have been elected by popular vote. In addition to belonging to different political parties in the treatment of bills, debates and exchanges of ideas are created according to the different ideologies, ensuring the well – being of the population .
Legislative branch by country
- Chile : its structure is bicameral , made up of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies and its main objectives are to represent the citizenry, form laws together with the president and supervise the acts carried out by the president and the government.
- Argentina : it is concentrated in the Congress of the Argentine Nation and is made up of a bicameral assembly of 329 members and a chamber of deputies with 257 of them, plus the Senate.
- Mexico : falls on the Congress of the Union made up of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies . They approve laws and taxes , thenational budget and approve or reject treaties and conventions with other countries.