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Lamination

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In the field of industry, there are several types of processes that can be used with the main objective of reducing the thickness of a certain metal or of a material that has malleable properties . One of these processes is known by the name of lamination in which a certain degree of pressure is exerted by means of a device known by the name of laminator .

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What is lamination?

The mill is a type of process which produces a deformation in a given metal which does change shape when it passes between two rollers which are rotating in opposite direction and having a separation less than the initial thickness of the material worked.

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  • What does it consist of
  • History of lamination
  • What is lamination for?
  • Types
  • Necessary equipment
  • Materials
  • Explanation of the process
  • Advantages of lamination
  • Disadvantages
  • Importance

What does it consist of

The mill is a type of process which is based on the volumetric deformation by means of which is achieved by reducing the initial thickness of a material determined by means of a series of compressive forces which are exerted by two rollers on the workpiece that is working. These rollers are in charge of rotating in the opposite direction to make the material flow between them and to exert at the same time a series of compression forces that originate from the friction that occurs between the metal and the rollers.

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It is a process that is generally carried out hot due to the enormous deformation that is exerted in the material that is being transformed and because the materials that are subjected to heat manage to obtain a series of important isotropic properties . It is also important to mention that through heat materials fail to eliminate the tensions waste which improves the procedure.

History of lamination

The invention of the first rolling mill is attributed to Leonardo da Vinci and these first mills were mills that had a longitudinal cut that were introduced in the year 1590 . These machines were in charge of passing flat bars between the rollers in order to obtain an iron plate which was then passed into grooved rollers . Then they were rolled to produce tin. The first patent granted for metal rolling was granted to Thomas Blockley of England in 1759 and then in 1766 to Richard Ford who created the first tandem mill.

The modern mill is attributed to Henry Cort who will also be granted a patent in 1783 for its new design of mills that were able to produce larger quantities of products that managed to combine different characteristics of manufacturing processes which caused him to be creditor of the title of ” father of modern rolling “.

What is lamination for?

Lamination is a widely used process in all construction projects as it is necessary in different processes related to the creation of other materials , mainly steel, zinc, aluminum, magnesium, copper and tin, among others. It is ideal to provide support to constructions as it has the great capacity to support the weight of other materials, as well as being highly resistant to natural disasters . It also makes it possible for steel to become more compliant .

Types

The types of lamination that exist are the following:

  • Lamination of bars and profiles : in this type of lamination, the material must be deformed to be able to shape a contour in its transverse part where it will be reduced in two directions. The process is done by passing the material through rollers which have the desired shape printed on their back.
  • Ring rolling: this process is responsible for rolling the thick walls of a ring with the aim of being able to obtain rings that have thinner walls but at the same time have a larger diameter.
  • Rolling of threads and ropes : it is used to be able to form threads in round pieces by means of the lamination between two shades. This type of lamination is done cold. This is considered the most important commercial process in terms of mass production of components that use external strings, for example bolts and screws.
  • Gear rolling : it is also cold rolled and is widely used in the automotive field to produce gears. One of the main industries that use this type of laminate is the automotive industry.
  • Tube lamination : it is a process by means of which it is possible to obtain tubes that have different diameters by reducing the diameter.

Necessary equipment

In order to carry out the rolling process, it is necessary to have equipment known as rolling mills, which have the function of exerting just and necessary pressure on the billet in order to then reduce weight through a series of steps. This type of mill is made up of two rollers in opposite position to which is known as a two-roller mill and which can be configured in different ways: reversible and non-reversible . In the case of reversible, the rollers have the ability to rotate in both directions allowing a series of reductions to be produced by means of them when the material passes several times in opposite directions and in the case of the non-reversible rollers, the rollers are rotating in the same address.

Materials

The materials that can be used in the rolling process include steel , copper , lead , tin , zinc and all alloys . So generally , the materials used in the field of industry have had to undergo a rolling process at some point.

Explanation of the process

The first step of lamination begins with the heating of the billet in the furnace at a temperature that can vary between 1100º Celsius and 1200º Celsius , this process causes a surface layer to be generated which is known as shell which must then be removed with high pressure water in order to start the roughing process . This process is carried out in the roughing train which is made up of several continuous rolling stands which produce changes in dimensions.of the billet reducing the section and forming bars and profiles .

Then, the rolling or transformation process must be started , which is generally carried out hot and for that reason the temperature of the kiln slabs must be reheated until reaching temperatures that reach 800º centigrade and 1150º centigrade . Subsequently, the products must be transferred to a cooling table until they reduce their temperature and reach 200º Celsius and here a series of samples will be taken to assess their quality .

Finally, in the final part of the cooling table there is an apparatus known as a shear , which has the function of giving the cuts and commercial measures or the profiles that are being laminated to later store the product and be able to plan its distribution. on the market after they have been packaged and labeled .

Advantages of lamination

Among the main advantages of lamination are the following:

  • When hot rolling it is possible to obtain important changes in the materials.
  • The cold rolling provides the advantage of increasing the resistance and improves the levels of tension and elasticity .
  • It is a means by which we can give you a long life to the material .
  • It is a type of process that does not produce waste or contaminants as a result of the operation.

Disadvantages

Its main disadvantages are:

  • It is a process that involves a high investment of money or capital because to achieve it, a variety of equipment and parts are needed, including the rolling mill .
  • Due to its high investment cost, it is a process that is mainly used when doing productions in large quantities.
  • After hot rolling , non-metallic inclusions within the steel may press down on the thin sheets causing delamination .
  • The uneven cooling can cause residual stress.
  • In some cases, formation and fatigue of the materials could occur .

Importance

Lamination is a very important process in the field of industry and technology because through it it is possible to make important and significant changes in the shape of the work materials . It is also the ideal means to increase the resistance of these materials, many of them are used in the construction area , which gives them special importance.0

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