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Kingdom Plantae

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The kingdom Plantae includes all types of eukaryotic , multicellular, and photosynthetic plants found in the biosphere . Most of the organisms in this kingdom are autotrophs , this means that they can synthesize their own food with the help of solar energy . The history of life on earth and the success of many organisms literally depend on the success of plants .

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What is the kingdom Plantae?

The Plantae kingdom is the kingdom that is composed of plants and algae that are part of the nature that surrounds us and that are characterized by being eukaryotic , autotrophic , multicellular and capable of synthesizing their food.

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  • Characteristics of the kingdom Plantae
  • History
  • Evolution
  • Classification
  • Structure
  • Breathing
  • Feeding
  • Reproduction
  • Habitat
  • Locomotion
  • Organization level
  • Cell type of kingdom Plantae
  • Profits
  • Importance of the kingdom Plantae
  • Examples of species and organisms of the kingdom Plantae

Characteristics of the kingdom Plantae

The main characteristics of the kingdom Plantae are the following:

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  • They are multicellular organisms .
  • Your cells have a cell wall made of cellulose.
  • They do not have the ability to move by themselves, which is why they are said to be immobile .
  • Its cells contain chlorophyll , which is responsible for the distinctive color of most plants.
  • They use chlorophyll to carry out photosynthesis by capturing the light energy that comes from the sun.
  • They are autotrophs so they can produce their own food from inorganic matter.
  • Their way of life can adapt to water and also on land .
  • They are able to survive in extreme hot and cold environments .
  • They are formed by root , stem and leaves .

History

The origin of plants is related to the origin of the first plant cell or the first photosynthetic eukaryotic organism with a chloroplast . Phylogenetically, this place corresponds to the clade Archaeplastida .

At present it is recognized that the origin of the first plant cell originated by a process called symbiogenesis , produced in a similar way to the origin of the first eukaryotic cell and that it consisted of the biological fusion between a cyanobacterium and a protozoan.

The oldest postulate of the origin of plants was formulated in 1883, when the French botanist Andreas Schimper said that the photosynthetic capacity of plant cells could come from cyanobacteria in nature.

Evolution

The evolution of plants dates back to the most primitive aquatic species that managed to reach and dominate the earth. For their proper evolution they developed strong and compact structures , roots to cling to the ground and leaves to carry out photosynthesis. Some time later, they began to develop the lignin that gave them rigidity and allowed the proper growth of the stems, increasing their size and ramifications.

It is believed that their evolution lasted approximately 600 million years and with their colonization and evolution they helped the environment to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide that was in the atmosphere.

Classification

  • Non-vascular plants: such  as mosses and bryophytes . They are an important plant as they function as the basis for the forest ecosystem and help prevent erosion by functioning as a carpet on the forest floor. All bryophyte species reproduce by spores , not seeds, never have flowers , and are found growing in soil , rocks, and other plants .
  • Vascular plants with spores: such  as ferns and pteridophytes . Unlike mosses, ferns and related species have a vascular system , but like mosses, they reproduce from spores rather than seeds. The ferns are the most abundant plant division in this group, with 12,000 species.
  • Vascular plants with seeds: such  as conifers . They reproduce from seeds , but unlike plants like blueberry bushes or flowers where the fruit or flower surrounds the seed, coniferous seeds have no cover . In addition to having cones , conifers are trees or shrubs that never have flowers and that have needle- like leaves like pines, firs, firs, cedars, junipers, and yews.
  • Flowering plants: it is the largest group, it includes trees, shrubs, flowers, fruits, vegetables and legumes. Plants in this category are also called angiosperms . They differ from conifers because they grow their seeds inside an ovary , which is embedded in a flower or fruit .

Structure

Plants have a structure that consists of:

  • Root which absorbs water and mineral salts, in addition to serving as a support for the plant.
  • Stem that supports the other organs of the plant and carries the sap to the leaves and flowers.
  • Leaves that produce food from carbon dioxide and sunlight.
  • Flower that is formed by the calyx and the crown.
  • Fruit that is the organ or ovary of plants that have flowers.

Breathing

Respiration is carried out by taking oxygen from the air and expelling carbon dioxide . They perform it both in the day and at night and the respiration process is carried out mainly in the leaves and stems of the plant.

Feeding

Plants are capable of creating their own food and they do so through photosynthesis , in addition, they take advantage of inorganic resources such as water and mineral salts that they absorb through their roots . Some plants can feed on other living things such as carnivorous plants .

Reproduction

They can reproduce sexually or asexually . Sexual reproduction is known as pollination and occurs when the wind or some insects carry pollen from a flower to a plant, producing the exchange of genetic material . Sexual reproduction is done by means of roots or rhizomes that, when grown, cause the gestation of an identical but younger individual.

Habitat

It can be terrestrial or aquatic . Some have been able to adapt to extreme climates and difficult geographies such as deserts, tundras and sea beds.

Locomotion

They lack locomotion because they cannot move when they want to and are usually fixed to the ground with their roots. Some plants like algae can float in the water and move around , but still, they can’t decide where to go. Others have phototropism , which makes them modify their growth to receive more sunlight.

Organization level

  • Prophyte level : includes unicellular plant forms , most of which have adapted to life in water; they are prokaryotes and eukaryotes .
  • Talophyte level : includes plant organisms with a multicellular vegetative body . They have adapted to life in water or water vapor , they do not have support elements, and they rest horizontally on the ground, except for aquatic forms that remain firm due to their buoyancy.
  • Bryophyte level:  its adaptation to terrestrial life is still deficient ; its habitat is terrestrial but in conditions of extreme humidity .
  • Cormophyte level : includes plants with high morphological organization , and they have adapted to terrestrial life. They have differentiated tissues since protective, conduction and support tissues are structured from the fundamental or parenchymal tissue.

Cell type of kingdom Plantae

Whittaker said plants are multicellular organisms , possessing eukaryotic cells with cell walls and vacuoles , with photosynthetic pigments in plastids. Some of them are unicellular , or syncytial and have structural differentiation.

Profits

The benefits of the kingdom Plantae are many, from ornaments to medicinal and culinary plants . Plants are essential for life, they help us clean the air we breathe, conserve water sources , regulate the climate and produce food for many living beings. In addition, they also play an important role in industry , construction, and environmental detoxification.

Importance of the kingdom Plantae

The kingdom Plantae is of utmost importance for human and animal life, because in addition to being excellent producers of oxygen , they help us control the gases that produce the greenhouse effect , contribute to the absorption of water from the soil, preventing it from accumulating and becoming saturated. , and in addition, they are a means of food for many species.

Examples of species and organisms of the kingdom Plantae

  • Angiosperms such as ferns, rye, millet, wheat, chard, and radishes.
  • Monocots and dicots .
  • Red, green and brown algae.
  • Glaucophytes.

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