In the recent memories of the peoples of Latin America there are figures who stand out for their courage, their intelligence and, above all, their determination to achieve the objectives that had been set. In the case of the Liberators of Spanish America, José de San Martín stands out above the rest.
- When was he born: 02/25/1778
- Where he was born: Yapeyú, Argentina
- When he died: 08/17/1850
- Where he died: Boulogne-sur-Mer, France
Who was José de San Martín?
José de San Martín was a prominent military chief and statesman who fought alongside the patriots in the independence fights in Spanish America, earning the recognition of Liberator from Chile, Argentina and Peru, respectively.
- Biography of José de San Martín
- Physical description
- What did José de San Martín study
- What did José de San Martín do
- Ideals of José de San Martín
- Importance of José de San Martín
Biography of José de San Martín
His birth took place on February 25, 1778 in Yapeyú , Province of Río de La Plata. At the age of six he left with his family to Spain , settling in Malaga and pursuing higher education.
At the age of eleven, José de San Martín began his military career within the Spanish Army , participating in important military actions both at sea and land level. Among them, most prominent was his participation in the War of Independence Spanish , where it received the rank of lieutenant colonel.
At the beginning of the emancipation of the peoples of America with respect to Spanish domination, San Martín immediately left for the Río de la Plata to collaborate with the revolutionary cause. There he achieved prominence through the numerous military victories achieved, among which are the Battle of San Lorenzo , among others.
In 1817 he crossed the Andes towards Chile , a country that he liberated in 1818. Then, he left for the Viceroyalty of Peru , becoming a partner in his liberation in 1822. Then, by 1824 he went into exile in France , the country where the August 17, 1850.
José de San Martín died in Boulogne-Sur-Mer , a French town, on February 25, 1850 at the age of 72, leaving his only daughter as the main heir. His remains were repatriated to the Argentine Republic in 1880, which rest in the Cathedral of Buenos Aires.
His contemporaries described him as a tall , burly man with lush black hair, thick sideburns, and a long nose.
What did José de San Martín study
His initial studies were given at the Royal Seminary of Nobles in Madrid and at the School of Temporalities in Malaga . Similarly, he began his military career as a Cadet in the Murcia Regiment at the age of eleven.
What did José de San Martín do
- He participated in military conflicts against England, Portugal and France.
- He created the Regiment of Grenadiers on Horseback.
- He participated in the Revolution of October 8, 1812.
- He won the Battle of San Lorenzo.
- He reorganized the Army of the North and created the Army of the Andes.
- He was governor of Cuyo.
- It made Chile, Argentina and Peru independent.
- North African campaigns.
- War of the Oranges.
- Battle of Gibraltar.
- Spanish War of Independence.
- Combat of San Lorenzo.
- Battle of Chacabuco.
- Battle of Cancha Rayada.
- Battle of Maipú.
Ideals of José de San Martín
José de San Martín bet on the union of the former Spanish colonies into a single indivisible Spanish-speaking nation. On the other hand, he conceived a Constitutional Monarchy as a form of government for Peru, an idea that was rejected by Simón Bolívar .
There is a version of how José de San Martín designed the Peruvian flag , which indicates that he once fell asleep in a palm tree; In this dream he was in front of a port with many ships and buildings that waved flags, until one caught his attention due to its impressive beauty. Upon awakening, he observed a row of “parihuana” birds with white breasts and red wings, from which he alerted General Las Heras that this was the color of the flag of the Peruvian nation that they would eventually liberate.
His parents were Juan de San Martín and Gregoria Matorras del Ser , both natives of the Province of Palencia, Spain.
José de San Martín’s wife was María de los Remedios de Escalada , a native of Buenos Aires. She married San Martín at the age of 14 and was actively involved in her husband’s revolutionary efforts.
San Martín had only one daughter, who was baptized with the name of Mercedes Tomasa San Martín y Escalada . Despite being born in Mendoza, he went into exile with his father in 1830 in France, where he died at 58 years of age.
Importance of José de San Martín
José de San Martín became a fundamental pillar of the definitive expulsion of any vestige of the Kingdom of Spain in South America . His figure is comparable to heroes of the stature of Simón Bolívar, among others. Despite its many detractors, its continental emancipation plan was the key to achieving that goal.