José de Espronceda was an important and renowned poet of Spain also considered one of the most important authors of the Spanish romanticism . He was a man who actively participated in politics giving his support to the liberal cause, being part of the different bourgeois revolutions that occurred in the 19th century, which caused his exile until 1833.
- When was he born: 03/25/1808
- Where he was born: Almendralejo, Spain
- When he died: 05/23/1842
- Where he died: Madrid, Spain
Who was José de Espronceda?
José de Espronceda was one of the most important Spanish romantic poets of his time and at the same time the most rebellious . His poems have been passed from generation to generation thanks to his incredible romantic spirit of the time.
- Biography of José de Espronceda
- Personal life of José de Espronceda
- Physical characteristics
- Works by José de Espronceda
- Presence in popular culture
- Curiosities about José de Espronceda
Biography of José de Espronceda
José de Espronceda y Delgado was born in the city of Almendralejo on March 25, 1808 in the Palace of the Marquis of Monsalud . At that time his father, Juan José Camilo de Espronceda worked as a sergeant major for the Bourbon cavalry. His mother was María del Carmen Delgado . He completed his first studies at the Colegio de San Mateo, where he received his primary and secondary education. He specialized in Humanities and Sciences and was educated by Alberto Lista . Under the supervision of his teacher theAcademia del Mirto where the author exhibits his first works.
In 1823 he decided to join the secret society known as the Numantines and with this, he won a certain political risk when he was only 15 years old. In 1825 he was in charge of replacing the president of the society and when he turned 17 he suffered his first exile for which he had to move to live in Madrid . Between the years 1825 and 1827, he decided to withdraw from politics and dedicated himself to writing youth poems .
In 1826 he already had a fairly important intellectual training and his father decided to apply to the Royal and Military College of the Knights Marine Guards . However, he did not comply with his legal documents and for that reason he could not enter. A year later he went to Portugal and then was expelled to London.
José de Espronceda yesterday on May 25, 1842, was 34 years old. His cause of death was diagnosed as diphtheria in the larynx . During his burial and funeral hundreds of people attended and it was considered one of the most massive events of the time. Later, his remains were taken in 1902 to the Pantheon of Illustrious Men of Spain .
Personal life of José de Espronceda
As for his personal life, he met Teresa Mancha with whom he established a relationship full of problems. Some time later, he learned that Teresa had married as a merchant and together they decide to flee, then they return to Spain from where he is later exiled. Together with them he had a daughter named Blanca who was born in Madrid on May 11, 1834 and who had to face the abandonment of her mother.
José de Espronceda’s literary style was greatly influenced by romanticism and by various European authors. His works were full of fantasy and focused on defending the weakest as well as liberal causes. The rhythm and sonority of his verses are two of the main characteristics that made his work so popular.
Although there is no exact physical description of the author in his portraits, you can see a man with slightly wavy black hair, black eyes, very bushy and outlined eyebrows and it is observed that he wore a mustache and a small beard.
His personality was seen from different points of view, for some José de Espronceda was a cynical man who liked adventure and was also a very womanizer , others thought the opposite and described his personality as a straight , focused and highly honest man. .
There is no data on recognitions that have been made in his honor.
Works by José de Espronceda
Among his main works the following stand out:
- The student of Salamanca : this work is considered the most important and it was a narrative poem divided into 4 parts with a total of 1704 verses. The main theme was the legend of Don Juan Tenorio.
- The Pirate’s Song : This was a lyrical composition in which he paid tribute to pirates, their way of life and the passion they demonstrated for freedom and nature.
- El diablo mundo : a long poem that could not be finished due to his death but some of its fragments were later published, a composition that includes themes related to God, death and life.
- The song to Teresa : it was a play written in honor of his beloved Teresa and her daughter. A composition full of eighths reales and hendecasyllable verses that also had a consonant rhyme . A work full of beauty and depth that showed love and pain.
- El Pelayo : to write it was based on the works of Virgilio and Homer .
- Love avenge your grievances : it was a story of love and revenge written in prose that took place in a single act and also had 19 characters.
Some of his most relevant phrases were the following:
- Madrid lies wrapped in sleep, all silence invites.
- The lost illusions are leaves, detached from the tree of the heart.
- And in dreams he confuses death, life: he remembers and forgets, he sighs, he breathes with horrid eagerness.
- Already the sun hides its rays, the world in shadows is veiled, the bird flies to its nest. The troubadour seeks asylum.
- That my ship is my treasure, that freedom is my god, my law, the force and the wind , my only homeland, the sea.
José de Espronceda is considered one of the authors who made a great contribution to the history of poetry in Spain because through him it was possible to change poetry with his poetic language . It was through his art in literature that the poetry of circumlocution was left behind, the excesses of rhetoricism were also eliminated , thus achieving a purer expression in the writings that narrated feelings . He was also in charge of capturing the protests against society and the moral values of the time, turning his poetry into one of the main sources.for the development of modernism and freedom of spirit .
Presence in popular culture
In popular culture it is possible to find a Spanish film called Espronceda that was released in 1945 and was directed by Fernando Cásares. In it, the moment in which José falls in love with Teresa, whom he sees again later when he is exiled in Paris, was narrated .
Curiosities about José de Espronceda
Some curiosities of José de Espronceda are mentioned below:
- His full name was José Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnación de Espronceda Delgado.
- The woman who inspired many of her strong works by Teresa Mancha .
- When he was 15 years old, he witnessed the execution of Rafael de Riego y Núñez by order of King Fernando VII and for that reason he decided to create a secret society which he called Los Numantinos .
- He always fought to defend his political ideals and this caused him to be exiled from his country on different occasions.