Johari Window


In 1955, the American psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham presented a method that allows individuals to better visualize and understand themselves as well as their relationships with others . It is the Johari window that today constitutes a powerful tool widely used in the field of cognitive psychology and in other contexts such as the world of work or education, as a marketing strategy or in personal development workshops, among others.


Johari window

The Johari Window is a tool for organizing and taking an inventory of personal characteristics from interior and exterior perspectives . The window is represented by a square divided into 4 quadrants. The horizontal axis of the window describes the knowledge of an individual while the vertical axis describes the knowledge of the group. This information can be known or unknown.


What is the Johari window?

This tool, developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955, is known in the form of a table divided into four parts or quadrants that constitute the Johari window model:

  • Public zone : This zone represents all the information that a person freely shares with those around him.
  • Blind zone: This zone represents the information that a person does not know about himself but that is known by those around him.
  • Private or hidden zone : This zone represents the information that a person knows about himself but that others do not know.
  • Unknown zone: This zone represents what the person ignores about himself, which is also ignored by other people. People who have little life experience and who do not believe in themselves often have a large unknown area. Exploring this area allows you to take advantage of new skills, abilities and talents that are little exploited.


The Johari window model was developed by American psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in the 1950s when they were conducting research in the field of group dynamics. Luft and Ingman give this model this name, after having combined their names Joseph and Harrington. In early posts, the word actually appears as “JoHari . ” Subsequently, it became a frequently used model for understanding and building self-awareness, for personal development, for improving communication, interpersonal relationships , group dynamics, team development, and intergroup relationships.

What is it for

This tool can be used as a reference to know and enhance our personal growth . For example, this model can help decrease the blind and unknown area through feedback with others and self-discovery. It is also very useful to work our dark areas and those hidden feelings that we do not want to reveal about ourselves . This allows the individual to feel more comfortable with himself and helps him foster closer and closer personal relationships.

How the Johari window is applied

To apply the Johari window, the person needs a fundamental aspect and that is to have the feedback of those around them . For this reason, it is not uncommon to see that this window is widely used as group dynamics, in places such as the work area or the classrooms.

Here are some steps that can be followed to apply the johari window as a group:

  • Build the window: A 2 × 2 matrix must be drawn and indicate what each quadrant corresponds to: public zone, private zone, blind zone, private zone and unknown zone.
  • Public zone: To work on this zone, the individual can consider the list of adjectives proposed by Luft and Harrington and choose 5 or 6 that describe his personality well. It is important to be honest.
  • Blind zone: The same process is repeated but this time the adjectives that describe the others are selected. In that sense, the individual will have an idea about how he is perceived by others. In the event that the group is not working, the individual can ask 5 people from their immediate environment, how they visualize it.
  • Combine knowledge: Now, the list of adjectives that the group has generated are combined.
  • Fill in the quadrants: The lists are compared, if an adjective appears in the two lists, it is placed in the open quadrant, the public area. But if, on the contrary, an adjective appears in the individual’s list but not in the group’s list, it is placed in the private or hidden area. When an adjective appears on the group’s list, but not on the individual’s list, it is placed in the blind zone. In the unknown zone, any adjective that is not present in any of the other zones can appear.


The Johari window allows us to change perspective by dissociating ourselves from our subjective point of view. This model allows us to observe ourselves from the outside . In this sense, our judgment is less affected by our emotions and our decisions acquire greater relevance. The Johari window implies individual work and collective work that favors the coherence of our communication and our way of being and acting, making us more authentic individuals .

In short, the Johari window allows us to get to know each other better and is an excellent empathy tool that serves as a basis for working and understanding the other.

Johari window example

  • The Johari window can be used as a marketing strategy to understand how customers view a company, brand or product . This would allow the information found in the blind zone to be collected, which would help to better understand customers. For this, you can use surveys or comments and interactions published on social networks.

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