# Isaac Newton

**Isaac Newton** was a scientist and mathematician who changed the way we understand the **Universe today** . Revered in his own life, he discovered the **laws of gravity** and **motion** and invented **calculus** . It helped shape our **rational** view of the world. He was a man with a big ego who thought that only he could understand **God’s creation** and his personal life was far from **rational** , consumed by petty jealousy, bitter rivalries and a ruthless quest for reputation.

**Personal information**

**When was he born:**01/04/1643**Where he was born:**Woolsthorpe, England**When he died:**03/31/1727**Where he died:**London, England

## Who was Isaac Newton?

Isaac Newton is considered the most important **scientist** and **genius** of science due to his great contributions in the area of **mathematics** , **astronomy** and **optics** , although his most brilliant contribution was in the field of **physics**.

## Isaac Newton Biography

Isaac Newton was born on Christmas Day 1642 in **Woolsthorpe** , a town in southwest Lincolnshire, **England** . After a basic education in the local schools, at the age of twelve he was sent to the **King’s School** in Grantham, England, where he lived in the home of a pharmacist named Clark. Newton was interested in the library **chemistry** and **laboratory** Clark, and built **mechanical devices** to entertain the daughter of Clark, including a mill Wind handled by a live mouse, floating lamps and sundials.

At the age of nineteen he entered **Trinity College** in England, where after receiving his bachelor’s degree in 1665, but he did not manage to finish as the university closed. Newton returned to Woolsthorpe during which time he performed **basic experiments** and thought about his later work on **gravitation** and **optics** . Newton developed his own system of **calculus** , a form of **mathematics** used to solve problems in **physics** .

Returning to Cambridge in 1667, Newton quickly completed the requirements for his master’s degree. His math teacher, **Isaac Barrow** , was the first to recognize Newton’s unusual ability. When Barrow resigned to take another job in 1669, he recommended that Newton take his post so Newton became a **professor of mathematics** at the age of twenty-seven and stayed at Trinity for twenty-seven years and served on the **commission** that the University of Cambridge

## Death

Newton was in good health until the end of his life; in 1722 he suffered a **kidney problem** that made him sick, and in 1724 he had renal colic. In 1727, a **stone** in his **bladder** began his agony. Newton died on **March 20** , after having refused to receive the help of the Church, because he abhorred the dogma of the Trinity.

## Thought

Apart from his merely scientific thinking, Newton was a man who believed in **God** and was deeply interested in the study of **theology** and the **Bible** , so his philosophical and theological thinking sought to understand God. He completely rejected the idea of the **trinity** and claimed that the **Catholic Church was** lying.

Isaac Newton thought that **science** and **God** were united, that they were different ways of arriving at the same **knowledge** . He became interested in **natural theology** to explain the properties that God had through the attributes of creation.

## Contributions

In optics, his discovery of the composition of **white light** integrated the phenomena of colors into the science of light and laid the foundation for modern **physical optics** . In **mechanics** , his three **laws ****of motion** , the basic principles of modern physics, resulted in the formulation of the **law of universal gravitation** , which includes the law of **inertia** ( Newton’s first law ), the law of **interaction,** and **force** ( Newton’s second law ) and the **action-reaction **law ( Newton’s third law). In mathematics, he was the original discoverer of **the infinitesimal calculus** .

## Discoveries

Among its main discoveries we can mention:

- Newton’s
**Laws** - The calculus that was called
**fluxions**and solved problems of orbits and curves. **Newton’s**”**Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica**“, known simply as the Principia which was the basis for that of the Industrial Revolution.- He discovered that the earth is not
**completely round**. - He determined that
**white light**was a combination of colors that can be separated by means of a prism and that the multicolored spectrum generated by the prism can be recomposed by white light and a second prism. - He formulated the theory on
**cooling**that is used today.

## Isaac Newton inventions

Isaac Newton invented the first **reflecting ****telescope,** now known as the Newtonian telescope. He created the empirical formula regarding **cooling** or **Newtonian ****fluid** . He formulated the **law of gravity** and the **refraction** of **white light** . He designed an **orbital cannon** to demonstrate his theory of the law of gravitation and also collaborated with the British Empire when he invented a **currency** that was impossible to counterfeit.

## Experiments

He carried out experiments with respect to **gravity** after once he was sitting under a tree, an apple fell on his head and he thought about why the moon did not fall on us then, a thought that led him to formulate the four fundamental **laws** of the **physical**.

He also made a series of tests to prove his laws and to confirm the mathematical formulation in the physical models of great complexity. He used a second **prism** to try to decompose the colors that resulted from the first prism, observing how the **rainbow** returned to its original **white light.**

He carried out experiments regarding the **refraction of light** that allowed him to correct problems in the **telescopes** that existed at the time.

## Importance of Isaac Newton

The importance of Isaac Newton for science has been enormous. His **laws of motion** are the basis of **physics** and current **science** , in addition to giving rise to the term **gravity** , he extended the **laws of mechanics** to the cosmos, through universal laws. He enunciated the Law of **Universal Gravitation** and **movement** . He studied the nature of **light** , formulated the principles of **optics** and **color theory** , integral and differential mathematical **calculus,** and developed the first **reflecting telescope.** transcendental in the later development of Astronomy.

## Books

Some examples from his books are as follows:

- Fluxion method
- Optics: or a treatise on reflections, refractions, inflections and colors of light
- Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), also known simply as Principia
- Mathematical principles of natural philosophy
- The Tempo of Solomon
- The World System

## Phrases

Among the most outstanding phrases of Isaac Newton we mention the following:

*Men build too many***walls**and not enough*I can calculate the***movement**of celestial bodies, but not the**madness**of people.*For me there has never been a greater source of earthly honors or distinction greater than the connection with the***advancements**of the*Gravity explains the***motion**of the**planets**, but it cannot explain who sets the planets in motion.*The***nature**is pleased with simplicity. And nature is no fool.*Unity in variety, and variety in unity is the***supreme law**of the universe.*For every action there is always an***opposite reaction***Where does all this***order**and all the**beauty**that we see in the world come from?

## Acknowledgments

Isaac Newton was widely recognized for his laws of **kinematics** , theory of **light** , for the development of **differential** and **integral** calculus, and of course, for the law of **universal gravitation** . He received important awards from the **Royal Society** of London. The **Queen Anne I** , appointed him as a ” **gentleman** ” in 1705.