The engines are a kind of device whose primary function is to provide energy in sufficient quantities to a group of parts so that they can then function properly. There are several types of engines, including the internal combustion engine . This type of engine is thermal and in it, combustion occurs in its internal part , specifically within a piece known as a cylinder where the transformation of energy occurs .
The internal combustion engine is a machine that is responsible for transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy through combustion that occurs in the internal part of the engine . It then transforms the energy from the fuel into mechanical energy .
- Internal combustion engine characteristics
- Who invented it
- How an internal combustion engine works
- What is it for
- Auxiliary systems
- Alternative internal combustion engine
Internal combustion engine characteristics
Among the main characteristics of combustion engines are the following:
- Its classification is based on the type of fuel that is used to produce the combustion reaction.
- There are Otto cycle internal combustion engines and diesel cycle engines .
- They can also be classified as two-stroke engines and four- stroke engines .
- It transforms heat energy into mechanical energy .
- Its basis of operation is the detonation of gasoline by means of the spark plug .
- It is usually located at the front of the car.
- It has dimensions that can vary in shape
Who invented it
The internal combustion engine was invented by Joseph Etienne Lenoir , a French inventor in 1860 although there were already some inventions that were in fact the predecessors of the internal combustion engine.
The first combustion engine was created by Etienne Lenoir in 1860 and little by little more inventors began to work on it to improve its performance. In the year 1876. Nikolaus Otto was in charge of achieving a remarkable improvement of the engine and with this he was able to make the four-stroke cycle work. In 1878, the two-stroke cycle engine was created, thanks to Dugald Clerk and in 1885, Daimler managed to put the gasoline engine on a two-wheeled car.
By the twentieth century , men like Jacobus and Hendrik-Jan Spijker managed to revolutionize technology and in this way the first six-cylinder engine was born. Starting in the 70s, the internal combustion engine managed to better position itself in the automotive market and was finally accepted as a profitable type of propellant .
The parts that can be identified and found within an internal combustion engine are the following:
- Engine block : this part of the internal combustion engine is considered the most important part of the engine because it is the part that is responsible for shaping the propeller.
- Cylinders : cylinders are pieces that are located in the internal part of the engine which can vary in quantity. This amount will be the one that can reflect the potential that the engine has and at the same time establishes the gasoline consumption.
- Pistons : they are located in the internal part of the cylinders and their main function is to act as a type of wall whose function is to prevent the leakage of fuel and gases during the energy transformation process. They are pieces that can move either upward or downward.
- Cylinder head: the cylinder head is the upper part of the engine and in it you can find all the essential parts of the engine such as the gasoline valve, exhaust gas and air intake.
- Valves : these are parts that are under pressure as they are responsible for being able to withstand opening and closing speeds.
- Crankshaft : is the part through which the connecting rod is joined to the piston. It is an irregular metal piece whose function is to be able to synchronize the movement of the pistons.
- Crankcase : it is the tray that is located in the lower part of the engine. It is responsible for allowing the oil to be deposited, which is used for the lubrication of the parts.
How an internal combustion engine works
The internal combustion engine works by means of four different phases which must be fulfilled in their entirety for it to function properly. These phases are mentioned below:
- Intake : in this phase, the cylinder piston is lowered and it sucks in the mixture between air and fuel through the intake valve .
- Compression : in this phase, the two valves that are part of the engine close, then the piston closes and the fuel mixture is compressed producing potential energy .
- Explosion : here the spark plug is in charge of acting by producing a kind of spark in the mixture, which is activated by means of ignition . Then the piston can go down thus producing the movement .
- Escape : exhaust, the piston must rise again opening the valve of exhaust and producing the output of the gases that are produced during the explosion of the whole process.
What is it for
The internal combustion engine is used to generate propulsion in automobiles , in some mechanical equipment and even in portable machines . Its main purpose is to be able to do more efficient work in order to obtain mechanical energy.
The main auxiliary systems of combustion engines are the following:
- Lubrication : they are a series of methods by which oil can be distributed throughout the engine parts.
- Cooling or cooling : all internal combustion engines should ideally have a cooling system.
- Ignition : This is a pulse that is synchronized with the cylinders by means of a rotary distributor and graphite cables to direct the high voltage discharge towards the spark plug.
- Distribution : it is a system that is responsible for taking the fuel and expelling the gases through the valves of the head.
- Feeding : this system consists of a tank, a fuel pump and a device that is responsible for dosing the fuel.
Alternative internal combustion engine
This type of motor, also known as piston engine or piston are a type of heat engine where the gases are produced in the exothermic reaction which occurs through the process of combustion , can push the piston using a motion alternative , sliding towards the internal part of the cylinder while making the crankshaft rotate in order to achieve a rotational movement .
Internal combustion engines are of the utmost importance because, thanks to them, adequate operation can be achieved in some means of transport such as cargo, combat and bulk ships. They also play a fundamental role in running two-wheelers, such as motorcycles , as well as in ultralight engines . The four-stroke internal combustion engines are also essential to achieve the mobilization of all types of land and naval transport .