Although it is sometimes not entirely clear how some ancient agrarian societies managed to evolve into what are now known as industrial states , it is clear that all of these important changes began to take place in Great Britain. , mainly during the Industrial Revolution that took place at the end of the 18th and 19th centuries , which led to generating an important and at the same time outstanding evolution in society .


What is industrialization?

The industrialization is the ability of a given state to pass a state purely agrarian to an industrialized economy where goods can be produced in large quantities.

  • What does it consist of
  • Characteristics of industrialization
  • Source
  • History
  • Stages of industrialization
  • Causes
  • Effects edit
  • Advantages of industrialization
  • Disadvantages
  • Industrialization by country
  • Relationship with imperialism
  • Importance

What does it consist of

The industrialization is a process by which an economy can move ahead and change the way they market , going from farm to a fully industrialized where the work is based on the production of goods. The jobs that were used to be done manually are replaced by mechanized mass production and the people who used to work in the different companies are replaced by large assembly lines .


Characteristics of industrialization

There are several characteristics that are present in industrialization processes, the most important of which are mentioned below:

  • It usually occurs in a specific sector .
  • It is based on the development of machines , techniques and processes that aims to reduce time and improve work processes.
  • It has the ability to generate greater growth in the economy .
  • Work can be divided and classified more efficiently.
  • It makes use of technological innovation to solve problems in business.
  • It generates greater growth in the upper and middle social classes .
  • Through the mechanization of manufacturing , production processes can be adequately renewed.
  • It encourages the development of technology and the chemical industry .
  • It is part of the modernization process .


The origin of industrialization is located in Great Britain with the Industrial Revolution when there was an increase in the mechanization of the work carried out by artisans that made it possible for the productions to be made with greater speed and in a massive way.


It is important to mention that at the beginning of the history of industrialization, societies looked for means to have an economy that would give them the ability to survive and for this, small groups of people were in charge of producing but without being able to generate surpluses that would allow them to open trade It was largely a type of rural industrialization.

The history of modern industrialization is associated with the Industrial Revolution which took place in the 19th century but is also located in the United States, mainly in the 1880s when the Great Depression occurred . The start of World War II also gave birth to industrialization and is considered an effect of capitalism.

The small technological innovations began to be present, the spinning machine and the mechanical loom were created , later the steam engine was invented , which meant an important growth in the development of large machines reaching higher levels of technology. Little by little machines came to occupy an important place in the world and factories also began to be built which increased manufacturing, reduced manufacturing costs and improved economic growth in industrialized countries.

Stages of industrialization

The stages of industrialization are considered as transitions, they are linked to the Industrial Revolution and were the following:

  • The transition from a totally agrarian society to a more industrial society .
  • The change from rural society to an urban type society .
  • The transformation of manufacturing into machinery invoices , in other words, industrial machines.
  • The change that occurred from the use of labor to the use of capital .


There were many causes that caused industrialization in the world. One of the first causes was the introduction of the feudal system that predominated in the European continent, which had an impact on the amount of labor that there was and that had to find a way to be able to integrate into the market, which caused different origins technological advances mainly in the field of mining and heavy industries . When societies realized that through industry processes could be accelerated and productions increased, nothing could stop the growth and development of industrialization.

The invention of the steam engine also had an important role that caused industrialization as well as the increase in jobs, the great competitiveness that existed at the time mainly between France , Great Britain and Germany and several relevant discoveries that originated in the field of chemistry , mining and metallurgy .

Effects edit

The main effects that occurred with the birth of industrialization are mentioned below:

  • The workforce of the peasants who were in charge of sustaining production became a working class that had to sell their work in exchange for a salary .
  • There was a depletion of most of the natural resources and minerals that existed in Europe , which with the passage of time gave rise to colonialism and imperialism .
  • There was a huge exodus of people who came to the West which caused the cities to become overcrowded.
  • It succeeded in laying the foundations for the creation of world capitalism and at the same time established the bourgeoisie as a dominant social class.
  • The remarkable increase in world production gave way to consumer societies .
  • Machines were used as tools to work.
  • Many natural resources were exploited in an important way.

Advantages of industrialization

Industrialization brought with it a series of advantages or benefits to societies that managed to introduce industry within economic models. These advantages were:

  • The industry growth is enabled the increased production on a large scale and this contributed to lower prices for consumers .
  • Produces significant savings in time and work .
  • Industrialization has led to a considerable increase in the standard of living of many populations.
  • Customers have more choices of products for consumption .
  • Helps save on labor and human energy .
  • It provides and creates new and greater employment opportunities which makes it possible to some extent to reduce poverty rates in nations.
  • New means of transport were created that have made it possible for exports to be made quickly.


Industrialization also brought with it some disadvantages:

  • Poor management of natural resources which causes contamination of the land, water and air.
  • Increase in the number of vehicles that transit which causes pollution.
  • The bad conditions of the industries cause health problems.
  • Child labor exploitation .
  • Displacement of labor within the industrial sectors that have caused unemployment .
  • The spiritual values ​​of man have been displaced to make way for a more artificial civilization.
  • Inflation problems occur in the countries, the cost of money is reduced and the working class is getting poorer every day.
  • The heavy industries cause the craft industries are displaced.

Industrialization by country

  • Spain : industrialization in the country came a bit late, several years after the Industrial Revolution took place. Between 1932 and 1974, what was called the Spanish economic miracle happened. At present, two are the important sectors are part of the industry , the agricultural sector and the commercial sector .
  • Mexico : in the country, industrialization has been presented in a progressive wayand had its beginnings in the year 1880 when they began to build railways, telephone lines and the increase in agricultural production , in addition to mining . Years later, thanks to the discovery of oil deposits, the industry and the economy increased.
  • United States : in the country, one of the most industrialized in the world, it has been possible to improve economic growth significantly, better wages , increased workers’ income , higher rates of immigrants , specialization of the workforce and the emergence of large industries are some of the main characteristics.
  • Colombia : its first industries emerged at the end of the 19th century and increased considerably in the early years of the 20th century. With the passage of time, more companies and factories were created in the country, increasing industrial production .
  • Argentina : in the country, industrial activities became the main engine of the economy, made possible the creation of more jobs and was the basis for the accumulation ofthe country’s economic capital . It generated a great capacity of technological capacityand the dynamism between the societieswas improved.
  • Germany : It had its beginnings in the 1840s and had several obstacles to being able to fully industrialize. The availability of natural resources was taken advantage of and it occurred in a marked way in the regions, the western zone being the most industrialized.

Relationship with imperialism

The relationship that exists between these two processes is that it was through industrialization that imperialism could arise, this because through the creation of industries , it was possible to increase the income of the towns and the production which made the cities They developed and migration to urban towns occurred , which caused the economy to increase, giving more power to some sectors of the population.


Industrialization is of utmost importance for the peoples as it represents the factor that makes it possible for them to grow economically , which at the same time allows a good development that also provides stable work . It is a means by which the workforce can be improved , the manufacture of goods for the population and it can become one of the main means of generating employment . It is through industrialization that the economy can advance correctly including innovation as one of the most important means.

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