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Independence of Peru

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The known history of each country has been a long historical process which has been made up of a series of events, social phenomena and war conflicts that have achieved various objectives, these are not due to whether the consequences are positive or negative, since they simply generate a change as far-reaching as independence can be.

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  • When was it:  Between 1811 and 1826
  • Where was it:  Viceroyalty of Peru

What is the Independence of Peru?

The Independence of Peru was a social and historical process that marked a before and after in the history of the nation of Peru, which was made through a separation between it and the Spanish empire through social phenomena, uprisings and war conflicts. that led to the independence of the Spanish monarchy so that it became the Peruvian Republic.

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Definition

The Independence of Peru was proclaimed on July 28, 1821 after many battles and insurrections . He broke away from the Spanish yoke that had remained under the command of Viceroy José Fernando Abascal, who disappeared when the emancipation occurred. This historical event occurred in the Plaza Mayor of Lima where a flag was displayed that symbolizes the independence of Peru.

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Characteristics of the Independence of Peru

Among its main features are:

  • Its first movements occurred with the armed conflict between France and Spain .
  • European nations supported the independence movement but only with the interests of taking over Peru themselves in the future.
  • Independence was not real until 1824, the Spanish continued to have absolute power until that date.
  • The squares where independence was proclaimed are: the Plaza Mayor de Lima (also known as the Plaza de Armas), the Plaza de La Merced , the Plaza de la Inquisición and the Plaza de Santa Ana .
  • The Catholic Church was against independence.

Background

We can start from the insurrection of  Tupac Amaru II , the Inca indigenous revolution of 1780 , and that of Pumacahua, unfortunately they were repressed by the government of Viceroy Abascal.

The first Peruvian autonomous rebellions arose from 1811 , the great independence movement in South America, led by some heroes such as Antonio José de Sucre and  Simón Bolívar was revolutionized, being an inspiration for the fight for total independence from the Spanish yoke and the battles began to arise in the Upper Peru that was the name that was had of the present call Bolivia. There was a lot of slavery , which unleashed a racial division that did not allow the independence movement to advance.

It is in 1820, when the Expedition that came to liberate Chile  landed in Peru under the command of General  José de San Martín and it was that the independence movement was well consolidated together with Bolívar , Sucre and others (all foreigners, unlike from other countries).

Causes

The main causes that promoted the Independence of Peru were:

  • Racial divisions fostered social hierarchy and established a caste society.
  • The Peruvian economy was in crisis , it did not lift so they changed Cabildos
  • The ruling class was oppressed.
  • Total loss of the export of precious materials and minerals lying there, giving up the land to Chile and Argentina, which had always been their competition.
  • The establishment of the payment of tribute that the natives had to make .
  • The reincorporation of King Ferdinand VII in Spain .
  • Spanish pressures .

Process of Independence of Peru

The revolutionary offensive of a military nature was initiated by General San Martín , with some patriots enlisted in the Hispanic garrison swelling his ranks, who stood out for their liberal ideas and fought in favor of the independentistas.

After a while, Martín began to gather indigenous and creole people and managed to convince them to start a battle, assuring them that this would give them victory for independence when he thought that the liberals would agree at the last minute and gave up. It was then there that San Martín had to seek help from Simón Bolívar , for that he traveled to Guayaquil , but Bolívar only provided military support then the two armies that had already liberated several Spanish-American countries, that of Martín and Simón, joined.

On August 3, 1821 , he assumed the title of  Protector of Peru  and applied social reforms , confirming the suppression of the Indian tribute that had been abolished by the Spanish in 1812, therefore he decreed their expulsion. Then with the arrival of General Sucre, he brilliantly fought the  Battle of Ayacucho  in 1824, where he gave Peru absolute freedom and independence.

Featured Battles

The most outstanding battles of the process of Independence of Peru were:

  • 1811 , Battle of Huaqui: José Manuel Goyeneche.
  • 1815 , Battle of Umachiri: Mateo Pumacahua.
  • 1821 , First Site of Callao: José de San Marín.
  • 1824 , Battle of Junín: Simón Bolívar.
  • 1824 , Battle of Corpahua: Antonio José de Sucre
  • 1824 , Battle of Ayacucho: Antonio José de Sucre: Due to the successful victory of the battle of Junin Bolívar decides to leave Sucre in command with more than 5800 men and although they had fewer than the white Creoles, they still obtained the victory to give place finally to Independence.

Consequences

Among the consequences of the Independence of Peru are:

  • The Spanish monarchy in South America is completely finished and the republican process is established.
  • They were years of great mobilization of the population and troops.
  • The economy expanded and international trade emerged (the British)
  • The Republican state was formed , exterminating all the colonial bases that the Spanish had left, except for the tax system that could not be removed at that time.
  • A new Republican congress begins to be held.
  • The tax drawback could not be addressed until the middle of the 19th century.

Timeline

The events in successive order were:

  • 1820 : José de San Martín disembarks.
  • 1821 : Martín proclaims independence and becomes Protector of Peru
  • 1822 : Martín is exiled to Europe .
  • 1823 : Bolívar arrives in Lima.
  • 1824 : Bolívar assumes the government, patriot victory in the Junin Battle and patriot victory in the Battle of Ayacucho.
  • 1825 : Extension of Bolívar in power.
  • 1826 : He retires from the Real Felipe fortress, the last Spanish stronghold in Peru.

Main precursors of the Independence of Peru

  • Tupac Amaru II (1738-1781) led native rebellion against the Spanish.
  • Juan Pablo Vizcardo y Guzmán (1748-1798): He was a Jesuit priest who promoted the independence movement of Peru from Italy.
  • Francisco de Zela (1768-1819): He was a Peruvian military man , the beginning of the independence process.
  • The Angulo brothers.
  • José de San Martín (1778-1850): The one who proclaimed independence.
  • Simón Bolívar (1783-1830): A prominent Venezuelan military man and the liberator of Peru.

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