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Independence of Argentina

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The emancipations that occurred in the years of the liberators of Latin America were successful and they also conquered the Argentine territory where they reached the end to break all the absorbing clutches of the monarchy of the Spanish Empire.

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  • When was it:  Between 1810 and 1825
  • Where was it:  Argentina

What is the Independence of Argentina?

The Independence of Argentina was a historical process  for the Republic of Argentina and one of the most important moments that have passed to date, was the cause of the dissolution of all the powers and authorities of Argentina that existed at that time.

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Definition

The Independence of Argentina occurred with several events, the first that started this process was in 1810 with the May Revolution , July 9, 1816  was the date on which the Independence of Argentina was proclaimed , but its process It culminated in 1820 with the political and military movement that was called the Anarchy of the Year XX,  after these fundamental events it was possible to change the name of the United Provinces of the Río de Plata to the Republic of Argentina and they began their existence as a sovereign country.

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Characteristics of the Independence of Argentina

  • They used the change of throne as an excuse to start the colonial discontent with the Spanish crown.
  • One of his inspirations for Independence was the emancipation of the United States in 1776.
  • The signing of the act of independence was made within the Congress of Tucumán.
  • The Tucumán congress began sessions with only 33 deputies on March 24, 1816.
  • The exact date on which the rebellion process began to overthrow the viceroyalty was May 25, 1810 with the arrival of the First Junta.
  • Bernardino Rivadavia was the first head of state or president of the United Provinces of Río de Plata from 1826 to 1827.
  • Neither neighboring countries nor the Spanish empire recognized July 9 as Argentina’s independence day until 1826.

Background

As well the Spanish Empire is known not only had under its rule to Argentina but several Latin American countries, however, so strategically placed as a capital city today known as Buenos Aires because it gave direct access to the river Silver where their exports and imports could be freely, they could be prepared for any attack, it was an effective escape route, therefore it came to be known as the Viceroyalty of the Río de Plata.

All that was in vain when the wars between Spain and Great Britain began at the beginning of the 19th century and everything exploded when the English tried to invade Argentina, at that time the indigenous people, Creoles, porteños, slaves and other citizens joined forces and it turned out to be until more organized than the same Spanish troops . From that event, these groups realized that it was possible to confront Spain, which was going through a difficult time since King Ferdinand VII left and unleashed what was called the May Revolution.

Argentine Independence Process

The revolution of May 1810 originated the independence movements, but brought in retaliation the formation of the United Provinces of Río Plata, which was taken as an independent state.

For years many battles were fought, the war of independence of the May 29 consisted of many people and most had no military experience and still was beaten by the group of rebellion, then he presented the Battle of Tucumán which was also won by the Creoles taking even more the advantage

With the return to power of Fernando VII, new civil conflicts began until 1816 where the Pact of the Cerrillos was signed by means of which the demarcations of the United Provinces were officially delimited.

Internal and External Causes

Internal

  • In the social: The government measures imposed by the Spanish made the Creole elites divide and antagonize the Creole elites who had their corrupt and unlimited power and were losing it.
  • In the Military: The British invasions that did not occur but not because of Spanish troops, because they were not able to fight it but the Creoles themselves to defend their possessions
  • Culturally: The intellectuals and scientists of the Viceroyalty always induced in each of his works and teachings ‘s independence from Spain and were inspired by the historical facts of other emancipations (the US, for example)

External

  • The invasion of Napoleon Bonaparte by the Peninsula Iberian, I think great instability in Spain and concentrated all its forces for independence from the British.
  • The North American Revolution .
  • Political crisis of the Spanish crown .

Consolidation of Independence

In 1813 the Assembly of the Year XIII was held where the bases for the new sovereign Country (Flag, National Anthem and Shield) were laid and projects for the political constitution were presented.

On March 24, 1816 process began parliament where approval of independence, then it was settled summoned all the deputies of the assembly of all Argentina on July 9 were able to meet everyone and was so voted for independence Argentina, although it is said that the one who was behind for the inspiration of said declaration was General San Martín, although it was the Congress of Tucumán that declared independence.

Featured Battles

Among its outstanding battles are:

  • Battle of Tucumán.
  • Battle of Suipacha.
  • Battle of Pichincha.
  • Battle of Ayacucho.
  • Battle of Las Piedras.

Consequences

The   most outstanding consequences of the Independence of Argentina are:

  • Economic improvement to 400%
  • It distributed lands , taking into account the Indigenous people.
  • Improved relations with neighboring countries.
  • They founded Schools and Universities, promoted the studies and culture of the population.
  • Popular sovereignty began
  • Form of government with the republican system
  • Nexus between rulers and population

Main Precursors of the Independence of Argentina

  • José Gervacio Artigas , outstanding in the wars of independence.
  • Bernardino Revadiva first president of the united provinces.
  • Cornelio Savaadera , first president of the first board.
  • José de San Martín , inspirer of independence together with Simón Bolívar.

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