The hybrid car is one of the means of transport that uses more than one means of propulsion ; that means it combines a gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor . The main advantages of hybrid vehicles are that they must consume less fuel and emit less CO2 than a similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicle.
Hybrid vehicles are a type of car in which hybrid powertrains are used that combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors , which makes it more energy efficient.
- What are hybrid vehicles for?
- Hybrid Vehicle Parts
- How Hybrid Vehicles Work
- Examples of hybrid vehicles
What are hybrid vehicles for?
Hybrid vehicles serve as a means of transportation from one place to another while at the same time serving as a means of saving fuel and protecting the environment , as they do not pollute the air while they are operating.
The main characteristics that we can see in hybrid vehicles are the following:
- They are a mix between an electric car and one that has a combustion engine .
- It can take small tours using electrical charge .
- They are completely friendly to the environment .
- They have a lower maintenance cost .
- Its engine power is unbreakable and life average battery is around 8 to 10 years.
- They produce less sonic pollution .
- They have greater autonomy and are more dynamic .
Electric vehicles have their origin in the first half of the 19th century. The first electric vehicle design was created by Ányos Jedlik in 1828 , although it was not considered a car. There is also information on a design by Sibrandus Stratingh and Christopher Becker in 1835. The first electric carriage was the work of Scotsman Robert Anderson in 1832-1839 and later, Thomas Davenport and Robert Davidson perfected the concept.
In 1896 the British HJ Dowsing and L. Epstein patented ideas about hybridization that were used in the United States to move large vehicles , such as trucks or buses. The Belgian brothers Henri Pieper and Nicolás Pieper built their Voiturette in 1899 , with a gasoline engine coupled with an electric one under the seat. In 1899 an employee of Jacob Lohner & Co made the first hybrid car design, which had an electric and gasoline motor. His name was Ferdinand Porsche and his design was an engineof gasoline that rotated at a constant speed, feeding a dynamo , to charge electric batteries , this is considered the first hybrid vehicle in the world.
Hybrid Vehicle Parts
The main parts of a hybrid vehicle are the following:
- Electric motor to transfer the electricity that is stored in the vehicle’s power train battery.
- Rechargeable battery that can store the electricity that powers the vehicle when the electric motor is in use.
- It also has small engines with four or fewer cylinders that are similar in operation to typical automobile engines, using gasoline to produce internal combustion and direct vehicle driving or powering a generator.
- Electronic control (ECU) that determines which power sources are best under certain conditions.
How Hybrid Vehicles Work
Hybrid vehicles work because they generate energy in themselves so the car is able to recover energy when it brakes and when it accelerates . The purpose of operation is to convert the kinetic energy of braking into electrical energy that accumulates in the batteries.
Another way that vehicles work are batteries that can be lead-acid , nickel – metal hydride , or nickel-cadmium , although the most efficient are lithium ion batteries . And then we have the plug-in hybrids. The advantage of this type of operation is that the car can be charged while it is parked or while shopping at the supermarket.
Among the advantages, which are many, we can mention the following:
- They are friendly to the environment because it works more cleanly and has better gas mileage. A hybrid vehicle is powered by a twin engine that reduces fuel consumption and saves energy .
- They are more affordable than other cars, they have less annual taxes and the expenses that can be presented by road dams are lower, thus saving money and fuel .
- They are cleaner and need less fuel to run, resulting in lower emissions and less dependence on fossil fuels .
- They help reduce the price of gasoline in the domestic market .
- It has a regenerative braking system so when the brake is applied while driving, the vehicle recharges the battery a little .
- It is built with light materials which produces that they need less energy to function. The motor is also smaller and lighter , which also saves a lot of energy.
- Higher resale value as with the continued rise in the price of gasoline, more and more people are turning to hybrid cars.
As well as having advantages, hybrid vehicles have some disadvantages that are the following:
- They are cars that have lower power because the gasoline engine that is the main source of power is much smaller compared to what you get in a single engine and the electric motor is low power.
- They can be very expensive , more than a common gasoline car and cost between $ 5,000 and $ 10,000 more than a standard version.
- The hybrid car has a gasoline engine an electric motor lighter and a pack of powerful batteries resulting extra weight that causes inefficiency of fuel .
- The costs of maintenance of hybrid vehicles are higher because they are cars that have higher technology and higher maintenance costs can make it difficult to repair the car by the mechanics.
- It is difficult to find a mechanic with that experience .
- They have a high voltage in the batteries which in the event of an accident could be lethal. There is a high probability of being electrocuted in such cases, which can also make it difficult for rescuers to get other passengers and drivers out of the car.
Examples of hybrid vehicles
Some examples of hybrid vehicles are as follows:
- Toyota Pirus : a high-tech car designed to efficiently combine gasoline and electricity.
- Saturn Aura Green Line : A mild hybrid whose electric motor assists the gasoline engine. Fuel is reduced when the combustion engine is turned off.
- Lexus LS600H : a very economical and lower cost high-performance hybrid. Capable of generating a force of 600 horsepower and its effort in electric traction is minimal.
- GMC YUKON – This is a kind of oversized bimodal hybrid.
- Chevrolet Volt: a hybrid that has a plug, gasoline engine and electric motor. The wheels are driven by the electric motor and the motor batteries can be charged with a normal electrical socket.