Human rights


The law is itself a group of norms and principles that have been inspired by ideas of order and justice , whose main function is to regulate society and public power. One of its most important branches refers to human rights , rights that are related to individuals without any distinction of ethnicity, language, religion, sex or nationality.

What are human rights?

Human rights are a set of prerogatives that are based on the dignity of the human being, which are established in the legal order of nations. They are rights that can be enjoyed by all people regardless of condition.

  • Characteristics of human rights
  • Source
  • Story
  • What are human rights for?
  • Types
  • Which are
  • Generations
  • Human rights defenders
  • Human rights by country
  • Importance
  • Examples

Characteristics of human rights

Human rights are very important for the human being, for society and for the world. Among its most relevant characteristics are the following:

  • They are inherent in all individuals in societies.
  • They do not make any kind of distinction regarding sex, ethnicity, skin color, language, nationality or religion.
  • There is no discrimination in them, all human beings have human rights.
  • They are interdependent , indivisible and also interrelated .
  • They are protected by law and also guaranteed by it.
  • They are a duty for all authorities and powers.
  • They are inalienable , in other words, they cannot be suppressed under any circumstance or situation.
  • They also include some obligations and duties on the part of the individual.


The true origin of human rights is found in the Enlightenment period , specifically in The Social Contract written by Rousseau , in which there is talk of a type of association, in which people must unite and remain free.


After the French Revolution in 1789 , for the first time human rights were proclaimed under the name of “Declaration of the rights of the individual in society “, this meant a very important step in the cultural process in favor of the human dignity . Some time later, with the American Revolution , the guidelines of freedom , fraternity and equality were established, which had been previously established by the French revolutionaries.

When the Second World War occurred between 1939 and 1945, most of the European and Asian cities were in ruins, millions of inhabitants had lost their lives and the number of families starving and homeless it was astonishing. In 1945 , 50 delegates from different nations met in San Francisco with a single objective, the creation of an international organization dedicated to promoting peace as well as preventing future armed conflicts.

This is how, in 1948 , the created body established the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , a document created by the United Nations , in an attempt to establish and determine the bases that should be followed to maintain an adequate world order in the society. Subsequently, different treaties related to Human Rights began to be created and at present, rights have also been included for children , for adolescents and for people who suffer some type of special physical condition .

What are human rights for?

Human rights serve to regulate respect for the dignity and existence of the human being as a whole. They are rights that serve to establish world standards that can ensure an adequate living condition for all individuals that are part of a society. They are useful in the creation of various social organisms such as health systems that promote the right to life and education systems, through which individuals have access to equality.

They are rights that have a very important function in the world because through them it is sought to ensure peace within nations, respect among its inhabitants and equal options for all individuals who inhabit a place.


There are two main types of human rights, which in turn are subdivided into other rights. The types of human rights are explained below.

  • Civil and Political Rights : this type of right was established in the International Covenant of 1976 and in them are rights that are in charge of protecting the freedom of the individual and also guarantee their participation in society and in politics. under equal conditions and without any type of discrimination.

In this group of rights we can find, for example, the right to freedom of movement , equality before the law, the right to a fair trial, the right to the presumption of innocence , freedom of opinion and expression , freedom of association and the right to participation in public affairs and elections.

Civil and Political Rights include the prohibition of deprivation of life , cruelty treatment , torture , slavery , forced labor , discrimination and racial or religious hatred .

  • Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: This group of human rights were included in the Universal Declaration established in 1948 . These include the right to decent housing , the right to food and work ; the right to education , scientific progress , cultural freedom , social protection and the enjoyment of physical and mental health .

Which are

The main human rights are the following:

  • All human beings are born free and equal , with the same dignity and rights.
  • All people have the same rights and freedoms without distinction of ethnicity, color, language, sex, political opinion, religion, economic position or other condition.
  • All individuals have the right to live in freedom and personal security .
  • No one shall be subjected to torture or harassment , punishment or cruel , inhuman or degrading treatment.
  • All individuals have the right to be treated in the same way before the law.
  • All human beings are entitled to protection by the law without any distinction.
  • Right to equal protection against any type of discrimination.
  • Right to amparo by the courts
  • The right to life , to live in freedom and safety.
  • Equality before the law .
  • Right to privacy .


The recognition of all human rights has come a long way and for this reason, they are usually classified into groups which are known by the name of generations. These generations are:

  • First generation : includes all the political and civil rights of individuals and was the first to be recognized at the end of the 18th century , in American independence and during the French Revolution . They are rights that guarantee the freedom of individuals by limiting the intervention of power in the private life of individuals. They also guarantee the participation of people in public aspects and in them we find very important rights such as the right to life , religious freedom and free expression .
  • Second generation: in it are the social , economic and cultural rights of human beings. They were incorporated at the end of the 19th century and in the 20th century. Their main function is to improve equality between individuals by giving them the same opportunities so that they can live a dignified life. It promotes action by the State in order to guarantee adequate living conditions . In this generation we can find the right to work , decent housing , health and education .
  • Third generation : they were incorporated at the end of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. They seek to improve solidarity between nations and inhabitants in addition to promoting peaceful and constructive relations to face the challenges of humanity. Here we find the right to peace , to development , to enjoy a clean environment .
  • Fourth generation : these rights are responsible for protecting individuals’ access to new technologies and innovation . In this group we can find the right to access information technology, the right to access the information society under conditions of equality and non-discrimination , the use of the infrastructure for online satellite services, the right to educate oneself in new technologies , right to informative self-determination , right to Habeas Data and to have digital security .

Human rights defenders

Human rights defenders are those people who have played a very important role and through which these rights have been defended. Among the most recognized defenders worldwide are the following:

  • Martin Luther King , Jr. who championed people of color in America during the 1960s.
  • Mahatma Gandhi .
  • Voltaire during the 18th century in France who fought against religious persecution.
  • Thomas Jefferson , who was the primary author of the Declaration of American Independence.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Nelson Mandela
  • Jose Ramos-Horta

Human rights by country


In this country, there are a series of conflicts related to human rights due to threats from the guerrillas against liberty , life , property , security, and those related to the environment . There are also many police and judicial arbitrariness since many abuses have occurred in the country, including torture and murders of guerrillas.


In the country, they represent all the fundamental rights that its citizens have, which are also guaranteed in the different legal systems of the country. However, some of these rights are violated because of the poor structure in the system and the authorities of the government , in fact, Mexico is one of the countries worldwide where there is greater violation of these rights.


Here human rights are supported by the Secretariat for Human Rights and Cultural Pluralism . They include the rights, duties and freedoms of citizens including civil , political , social , cultural and economic of all inhabitants including children, adolescents and people with disabilities.


Spain is a country that is committed to the protection and application of human rights. In its legal system much protection is given to them as well as to the fundamental freedoms that are extracted from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as well as in international treaties.


Human rights are of utmost importance because they turn out to be essential in all human beings so that they can come to enjoy justice , freedom , healthy environments , all equally. It is a guarantee so that individuals can equally enjoy a series of benefits that mostly must be granted by society and governments.


Some examples of human rights are:

  • Right to disseminate opinions in the different media.
  • Participation rights in the different government positions of a country.
  • Rights to marry and to form a family.
  • Right to choose the religion with which people feel most identified.

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