The horticulture is the only plant science incorporating simultaneously science and aesthetics of plants. It is the science and art of producing edible fruits , vegetables , flowers , herbs, and ornamental plants , improving them, and then marketing them. Horticultural crops are diverse; They are used for food and for the decoration of interiors and gardens. These specialty crops help maintain and enrich our lives by providing nutritious food., enhancing the beauty of our homes and communities and reducing our carbon footprint .


What is horticulture?


The horticulture is a science and the same time art used for the development , the production sustainably, marketing and use of plants for food and the same time the ornamentation which are cultivated intensively.

  • What does it consist of
  • Horticulture features
  • History
  • Types of horticulture
  • Tools
  • Advantage
  • Disadvantages
  • What products are obtained
  • Horticulture in the world
  • How it differs from agriculture
  • Importance
  • Horticulture books
  • Examples

What does it consist of

In a broad sense, horticulture is a science that consists of growing vegetables , legumes , greens , fruits , aromatic herbs and flowers and then marketing them for human consumption and use. It is a technique by means of which it is mainly sought to improve the yield of the crops and at the same time increase the nutritional values that they have as well as their quality and resistance.

Horticulture features

Among the main characteristics of horticulture are the following:

  • Horticulture uses different types of technologies to plant , protect crops , distribute products and consume .
  • Use land to plant which can be large or smaller .
  • It is practiced by people who go by the name of horticulturists .
  • It uses specialized fertilizers , sprayers and irrigation systems .
  • Different types of species can be planted .
  • It may need large amounts of water to function properly.
  • Thanks to technology , planting and production periods tend to be quite short.
  • Large patches of land are not needed unless they are intensive and large crops .


The history and evolution of horticulture are closely related to the history and development of agriculture . As such, horticulture forms humanity’s desire to control nature. This story encompasses exploration , conquest , experimentation , innovation, and globalization . We can say that its origins occurred when human beings were sedentary and when they began to cultivate the land.

The first civilizations as such that began to practice horticulture were the Egyptians and it was they who managed to develop various irrigation systems and also took advantage of the healing properties of many plants. The Mesopotamian , Babylonians and Assyrians also developed the technique as did Greece and China . In Rome , a type of greenhouse was also developed and they learned to refrigerate fruits.

During the Middle Ages , the practice of horticulture declined, however, in the Renaissance period , it again achieved importance. Little by little it developed more as a science thanks to the appearance of communication channels and the improvement of cultivation techniques . Thanks to today’s technology , horticulture has positioned itself as one of the main sources of food production in the world and has expanded not only to vegetables and fruits, but also to many other consumer and use products.

Types of horticulture

There are several types of horticulture which are mentioned below.

  • Fruit growing : this type of horticulture is based on the production of fruit.
  • Floriculture : seeks to sow, develop and distribute flowers and ornamental plants which are used for interior and exterior decoration.
  • Olive growing : this branch produces all the types of vegetables that are found within the group of roots, tubers and fruits.
  • Aromatic and medicinal species : consists of the sowing and production of all aromatic species of plants which are used for food or medicine .
  • Organic : in this type of horticulture, crops and production of fruits, vegetables and herbaceous plants are carried out using ecological techniques that seek to improve and preserve the land, in addition, it does not use any type of chemical fertilizer or pesticide.
  • Protected horticulture : this system is carried out using a production system that is based on the improvement of the natural environment where the crops are made and with this higher quality products can be obtained.


There are many tools that are used to practice horticulture, these will also depend on the type of horticulture and whether the activity is carried out on a large scale. Some of these tools are:

  • Shovels, hoes, rakes, pruning shears, screens, pitchforks, wheelbarrows and watering cans.
  • Mechanical tools such as the rototiller, chainsaws, saws, saws, tractors, harvesters, plows, sprinklers, compost machines.


Among its main advantages are the following:

  • The horticultural landscapes can contribute to maintaining and improving the health and wellbeing of people.
  • It gives the ability to produce products despite the fact that the conditions are not conducive, this includes extreme climates or degraded soils, this thanks to current technology.
  • Depending on the type of horticulture, the products can be protected with screens, meshes, roofs and shades .
  • It allows adequate control of pests and diseases that can attack plants.
  • The automated horticultural causes producers to make production more efficient and effective .
  • Better satisfaction for the consumer is given mainly when horticulture is done in protected environments because users are also interested in supporting sustainable businesses .
  • Horticulture can help reduce pollution of the air inside homes and, eventually, also abroad.


Some of its disadvantages are mentioned below:

  • You might have high costs of maintenance .
  • You need a large workforce especially if the crops are large.
  • Although crops grown with horticultural methods are grown in soils that contain an adequate composition of nutrients, these are quickly depleted. ‘
  • The bushes and trees near the planting areas are cut and left to dry in the fields and then burned, which damages the environment and produces environmental pollution .
  • The type of climate must be taken into account before practicing gardening to avoid damage to crops.

What products are obtained

There are many products that can be obtained through horticulture. These can be shallow roots like celery, broccoli, cauliflower, and garlic; modern deep roots like peas, chard, peppers, cucumbers, beets and carrots; deep roots like sweet potato, asparagus, watermelon and tomato.

Horticulture in the world

The horticulture sector is currently flourishing and opening up new job and research prospects , introducing a new vision in the agriculture sector globally. In fact, horticulture is currently considered an independent industry . Furthermore, the floriculture industry is accelerating due to the increasing demand for fresh flowers and various associated products . This has generated new income prospects for farmers and others working in the sectors related to this industry. The transformation sectors , transportdistribution and packaging associated with the horticultural industry have also benefited greatly.

How it differs from agriculture

The agriculture is a type of activity that is based on planting crops in order to obtain products which are then eaten as food, is a large – scale activity and is used to meet the basic needs of individu0os such as food and coat. The horticulture in turn is a part of agriculture, it is also cultivated land but on a smaller scale it does not require large land plots to be performed.


From the point of view of human nutrition, horticulture is very important to our daily life because the human body needs vitamins , proteins and minerals , as well as carbohydrates which come from the food that is produced through horticulture . The horticulture sector is of great importance for the products it produces, as they are a source of foreign exchange and, therefore, a source of income . The plants that are harvested with this science are also used as medicineto treat or cure diseases. Through the horticulture sector employment is also generated in the realization of different field operations such as the collection of the fruit, the harvest, the classification, the packaging and the sale.

Horticulture books

Some important books in which information about horticulture can be found are:

  • Elements of General Horticulture by José Vicente Maroto.
  • Vegetable Growing Manual e Steve Ott.
  • Fundamentals of Biodynamic Agriculture by Rudolf Steiner.
  • Farmer’s Composting Manual.
  • Planting and transplantation of horticultural crops and cut flowers by Alberto Moreno Vega.


There are many examples that can be given on horticulture, some of them include the cultivation of eggplant, corn, basil, melon, watermelon, broccoli, fennel, lettuce, garlic, onion, roses, carnations, palm trees, etc.

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