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What is knowledge?
Knowledge is the act of knowing , having an idea or notion of something through information that is presented to you.
Knowledge is made up of 3 basic elements :
- the subject (or knower): the person capable of obtaining knowledge;
- the object (or knowable): what or what can be known;
- representation : which is the subject’s understanding of the object.
For you to understand in a practical way, these elements work as follows: you are the subject , this text you are reading is the object and the representation is what you are understanding of it.
There are also two main theories that explain the origin of knowledge, that is, how it arises:
- Empiricism : explains that knowledge is acquired from experience, from the subject’s contact with the world;
- Rationalism : explains that all knowledge comes through reason, the simple act of thinking.
The word knowledge comes from the Latin cognoscere , which means act of knowing. Knowledge is basically looking at the world and its elements and representing them from ideas.
There are different types of knowledge:
- Sensitive knowledge : it is knowledge based on the 5 senses of human beings;
- Intellectual knowledge : it is linked to logic and reason;
- Empirical knowledge : it is that based on practical day-to-day experience;
- Scientific knowledge : is knowledge based on evidence that rationally explains and proves a fact;
- Philosophical knowledge : it is linked to questioning reality itself, creating ideas and concepts;
- Theological knowledge : that is knowledge gained from faith, of what cannot be explained.
Main types of knowledge
Empirical knowledge (or common sense)
It is the spontaneous way of knowing, it is the knowledge acquired in day-to-day practice and transmitted from generation to generation .
Empirical knowledge is not intended to be experimentally or theoretically proven to be true or false, because it is knowledge that simply happens in everyday life.
Example : fire is considered one of the first knowledge of human beings.
The act of making fire was passed on from generation to generation, without much concern for how or why it happened. The important thing is the result of knowledge: having the fire.
Religious (or theological) knowledge
It states that phenomena that we cannot explain rationally, or that we do not know the explanation for, are supernatural causes .
Generally, religious knowledge is one that attributes supernatural actions to one or more divine entities, such as gods , spirits or God , for example.
Philosophical (or rational) knowledge
It consists of questioning reality in a rational way, to create ideas and concepts. It arises from the passage from mythological thinking to rational thinking.
Philosophical thinking is one that questions its own reality in a rational way , and does not necessarily seek to find answers.
Scientific knowledge is that analyzed and based on scientifically proven facts.
The hypotheses or prepositions in scientific knowledge have their veracity proven through experimentation and not only by reason, as in philosophical knowledge.
The main feature of scientific knowledge is its methodological basis .
What is Information?
Information is the collection or set of organized data and knowledge , which may constitute references about a certain event, fact or phenomenon.
In a general context, this dataset aims to reduce uncertainty or deepen knowledge about a subject of interest from what is already available.
It also refers to clarifying the functioning of a particular process or object. For example, to know how a washing machine works, you need access to the instruction manual, which contains information on how the appliance works.
Information is also configured as a resource that assigns meaning to reality through its codes and the data set. It is capable of giving rise to the formation of human thought.
It also allows solving problems and making decisions, based on the rational use of this knowledge acquired through it. In this way, the more precise it is, the better the communication will be.
In the context of communication, information is knowledge that becomes public through the media or through advertising.
Example: “The newspaper released new information about the contest” .
In the legal area, information is the set of data that can be characterized as evidence of an infraction, in addition to being able to know the authorship of who committed it.
In the areas of informatics and technology, information can be the gathering of data processed in a computer and capable of generating results for a given project.
It can still be a qualitative factor that designates the position of a system that can transmit to another.
The word comes from the Latin informare , which means “to model, to give form”. It can be replaced by synonyms such as: reference, report, science, data, notion, news, knowledge, notice, participation, note, memorandum, communication, announcement, message, communiqué, opinion, report, report, opinion, clarification, explanation, appreciation, indication.
Information Technology, also known by the acronym IT, is an area that uses computing as a means to produce, transmit, store, access and use various information.
It can be used in different contexts, having a very complex and broad definition. Technology is used to process information, helping the user to achieve a certain goal.
The information system is the model of processes responsible for collecting and transmitting data that are useful for the development of products or services of companies, organizations and other projects. It can be automatic or manual.
In this type of system, all the components are interrelated, working together to achieve the central object of the project.
Access to information law
In Brazil, Law 12,527/2011 regulates the constitutional right of access to public information. It creates mechanisms that allow any person, physical or legal, to have access to public information from government agencies and entities.
The Law applies to the three Powers of the Union, States, Federal District and Municipalities, including the Courts of Account and the Public Ministry. Non-profit private entities are also required to publicize information regarding the receipt and destination of public funds received by them.