Hemiptera are generally known as ” true ” insects . The group of insects is very large, with around 75,000 species worldwide. Many of them are very different from each other, but all have penetrating mouthparts with which they can suck the juices of plants or animals, usually plants . As feed mainly on plants, some insects, such as aphids, for example, are considered as pests agricultural serious not only because damage the crops but also because they can transmit viral diseases. However, most insects are not pests .
What is the hemiptera order?
A fairly large order of neopteran insects found around the world is known as the hemiptera, which have forewings divided into a compact basal section and a membranous distal section .
- Characteristics of the order hemiptera
- Importance of the order hemiptera
- Why are they called hemiptera
Characteristics of the order hemiptera
Among the main characteristics that we can observe in hemiptera we mention the following:
- They have mouthparts that have been modified in the shape of a beak that serves to pierce and suck liquids from plants and animals.
- The jaws and maxillae are needle- shaped .
- They have a pair of compound eyes on either side of the head and some may even have single eyes on the forehead.
- They have antennae without many segments but they can be quite long.
- Their legs have adaptations to be able to walk , jump , grasp and in some cases swim .
- It has a pair of wings .
- Its prothorax is welded to the body and is bulky in size, in which there is part of the nervous system .
- They hatch from eggs or nymphs .
Since the Carboniferous period there are data regarding the Hemiptera, then it is believed that they developed during the Jurassic . More than 600 described species have been found in the Cenozoic and many of them have been found in the genera that inhabit today .
There are several types of hemiptera, among which we have:
- Hemíptera Anthocoridae : they are part of the Heteroptera and Cimicoids family . They are not very large and are only a few millimeters long. Most are predators and produce between 1 and 4 generations a year. They eat other small animals and eggs.
- Hemíptera Coreidae : they form a family composed of insects that feed by sucking sap and are also known by the name of Coreidae . They live mainly in cities and their origin is tropical or subtropical . In some places they are considered as pests in food and when feeding on branches, they are also seen as weakening them. Their shape is oval , they have antennae , wings and glands that produce a bad smell .
- Hemiptera heteróptera : they have disparate wings , many of them are aquatic or semi-aquatic . They are located all over the world and feed on plants, which is why they become important crop pests .
- Infraorder Gerromorpha : most of them are semi-aquatic and inhabit mainly coastal areas , calm and fresh waters .
- Hemíptera Miridae : in this group we find the plant bugs . They are leaf bugs and can be found in lawns . It is the largest family of bedbugs, oval and elongated , small in size and brightly colored .
The habitat of Hemiptera is basically all over the world and they can inhabit all types of environments that exist. They adapt so easily to places that even some of them are seen and considered pests .
A large part of the hemipterans feed on plants and are classified as phytophagous for this reason, in addition, they can represent a pest and damage crops and forest plantations. Some of them can also be predators as they feed on other small species or the eggs that they produce, for this reason they are also considered as pest controllers and are used in biological control . Some of them, in small quantities, feed on blood and are important transmitters of pathogens , such as Chagas-Mazza disease orAmerican trypanosomiasis .
In most cases, sexual reproduction occurs . The male must introduce the reproductive system called spermatophore inside the female. In isolated cases , traumatic insemination can occur , which occurs when the male breaks the female’s abdomen in order to introduce the sperm. After the laying of the eggs , nymphs will emerge in a false ootheca and its duration will depend on the species , sex and the time of year in which it is born. Eggs are generally placed in plant structures as in the leaves and in the soils.
The biological cycle begins when the nymphs hatch from the eggs. After emerging from the egg, nymphs undergo various morphological changes to become adults and complete their life cycle. This process is known as phases and they are produced by molting . After this process, the adults will begin to reproduce and will give way to another generation of hemiptera and with this the life cycle will repeat itself.
The respiratory system of the hemiptera class begins in openings that are located throughout the abdomen which are called respiratory stigmata . Through this place the air with oxygen enters through channels known as tracheas . In the walls of these tracheas occurs the exchange of gases and formation of the oxygen . In aquatic hemiptera species there are respiratory siphons . The respiratory system of the Hemiptera is mainly tracheal .
Importance of the order hemiptera
The importance of this type of insects is based on their agricultural , economic and medical importance . As for agriculture , hemiptera must be closely watched as they feed on leaves and stems of plants, causing great problems in crops . In the case of economic importance, they must be controlled since the losses generated in forest crops or trees are of importance. They are animals that should be monitored from the viewpoint of medical since can produce diseases of considerationand in some cases fatal .
Some examples of Hemiptera are as follows:
- Pumpkin bug
- Green bug
- Killer bug
Why are they called hemiptera
They are called this way because most of them have their forewings or hemiélitres divided into a hard basal half and a distal half that is membranous in consistency. Or in some cases because their wings are completely membranous .