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Helicopter

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helicopter is an aircraft powered by two propellers. The word helicopter derives from the French hélicoptère from helix and pteron which are Greek words that mean propeller and wing respectively.

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What is a helicopter?

A helicopter is an aircraft powered by two propellers , one front and one rear. They are used for civil or military activities, for transport, rescue, surveillance or attack . It was invented by the Ukrainian Igor Sikorsky.

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  • Definition
  • What is it for
  • Helicopter Features
  • Story
  • Who Invented the Helicopter
  • Types
  • Parties
  • How does it work
  • Maintenance
  • How high does a helicopter fly
  • Examples

Definition

helicopter is an aircraft with two propellers , one at the top for horizontal rotation and a small one at the back that rotates the tail of the same.

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What is it for

Helicopters serve as a safe means of transport, they are used as ambulances, for military or police operations, as a means of work for firefighters, or for heavy or light loads, for surveillance and rescue of the injured .

Helicopter Features

The main characteristics of the helicopter are:

  • You can land and clear vertically, that is, in a parking lot, on a building or on a mountain, without the need for a runway.
  • It can fly slowly or remain stationary in the air,
  • It has the ability to move in all directions, unlike the plane that only moves forward.
  • It is more complicated to fly and to build.
  • It has two propellers.
  • There are civilian and military helicopters.

History

By the 400s BC, the Chinese developed a toy called a flying top, which was made up of a propeller that rotated at the end of a rod.

In 1927 a huge device called the Gyroplane rose into the air piloted by a man.

Leonardo da Vinci , for the year 1940, drew and designed sketches of what would be the first flying artifact with a motor.

On February 21, 1920, the Argentine Raúl Pateras de Pescara made the first takeoff and landing of a helicopter and patented his design with counter-rotating blades in Spain . This Argentine inventor was also the first to use autorotation for safe landings. They were used during World War II .

Next, the Spanish engineer Juan de la Cierva invented an aircraft that took off with a jump technique, almost vertically.

The first piloted and powered helicopter was invented by the Slovakian Jan Bahyl .

In 1930, the Italian d´Ascanio, developed a twin-engine helicopter, that is, with two engines. That traveled 1 km of distance, up to 15 meters high, for 10 minutes, setting records for the time.

In Germany for the year 1937, a twin-engine helicopter called Focke Wulf 61 was created, which flew at a speed of 122 km / h and a height of 3427 meters.

In 1943, Igor Sikorsky manufactured the first chain-produced, flight-controllable helicopter.

In 1946, the Bell 47 designed by Arthur Young was the first helicopter used for civilian personnel in the United States .

In the 20th century, great fuel and engine improvements were made , for the development of faster and higher flying helicopters.

Who Invented the Helicopter

Helicopters were invented by Igor Sikorsky , an engineer born in Ukraine in 1889, who carried out his first helicopter projects in 1909. His VS-300 model has the structural characteristics of the helicopters used today.

Types

Civil helicopters:

  • Police: generally used in large cities, useful for surveillance, transfers, and road or border control.
  • Ambulance: used to rescue the wounded, to transport hospitalized patients, to provide first aid.
  • Cargo: they are large and powerful helicopters, to transport light or heavy materials.
  • Rescue: to save people or animals in the forest, sea or mountainous areas.
  • Firefighting: they are like fire trucks but work from the air to put out forest or infrastructure fires.
  • Transportation of people: to transport or move civilian personnel.

Military helicopters:

  • Attack or combat: it contains within it a great diversity of weapons.
  • Troop transport: as its name implies, it is used to move soldiers to places
  • Light or heavy transport.
  • Medical: to transport wounded soldiers and provide first aid inside it.
  • Unmanned: it does not transport humans on board, it uses state-of-the-art technology and is used to recognize territories or spy.

Parties

  • Upper rotor: used to raise, lower, advance, reverse and support the helicopter. This upper rotor also has its parts: head, main shaft, two blades, swash plate and flybar system.
  • Posterior propeller: used to rotate the tail to the right and left.
  • Body: part where the mechanisms are.
  • Cockpit: it is a cubicle from where the pilot manages the aircraft.
  • Control rudder pedal : foot operated pedal to steer the rudder.
  • Landing skid: metallic device activated for landing.
  • Fin: mechanism to deflect or stabilize the helicopter.
  • Joystick: to take control of the aircraft.
  • Fuselage: part that helps maintain the helicopter’s posture during flight.
  • Oscillating plate: helps support during landing.
  • Rotor vane: serves for propulsion and sustains flight.
  • Fuel inlet duct: it is a hole to fill the fuel tank.
  • Steering synchronizer cable: they are iron wires to handle the aircraft.
  • Anti-torque rotor: it is an auxiliary of the lift and propulsion.
  • Rear rotor: for stability in the air, it also prevents the body from rotating.
  • Transmitter: radio control transmitter.
  • Tail: thin rear part of the fuselage.
  • Rotor hub : central part for propulsion and lift.
  • Receiver: device that transmits mechanisms.
  • Motor and battery.

How does it work

The helicopter is lifted through motorized rotors that rotate on their vertical axis on a fuselage. The rotor is attached to the fuselage by gears that reduce speed. In addition, it has a small thruster on the tail of the helicopter to push the tail from one side to the other horizontally allowing the aircraft to turn.

Maintenance

  • Scheduled: it is carried out with a revision plan and certain spare parts.
  • Not programmed: to detect faults that endanger the flight of the aircraft.
  • Review of transit inspections of tires, oil and authority structure was made generally before each flight.
  • Daily check : checked 20 minutes after the engines are switched off.
  • 48 hour review: the review is performed at this interval. More in-depth inspection of fluids, brakes and wheels, fuselage, wings and cockpit.
  • Time limit check : the engine is checked according to the number of flight hours.
  • Review of the operating limit cycle: they depend on the flight cycles, the landing gear, the engine, the blades of the turbines are reviewed.

How high does a helicopter fly

There are helicopters that fly where there is no oxygen, like the helicopter that reached the top of Everest to carry out a rescue in 2017, reached 8850 meters. The height record was in 1972 and was 12,442 meters high. But generally they rise to 5000 meters in height.

Examples

  • Sikorsky S-51 or VS-327
  • Bell 212
  • Sikorsky S-61
  • Sikorsky S-76 Spirit
  • Robinson R22Denel AH-2 Rooivalk
  • Mil Mi-26
  • Boeing AH-64 Apache
  • Bell AH-1Z Viper
  • Enstrom F-28
  • GEN H-4
  • Westland 30
  • Schweizer 300
  • Kamov Ka-52 or Alligator
  • Eurocopter EC665 Tiger
  • Hal Light Combat Helicopter

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