Being the fifth in the bloodline of the Babylonian royal family, Hammurabi played an important role in the growth and development of the kingdom itself.
- When was he born: 1810 BC
- Where was he born: Babylon
- When he died: 1750 BC
- Where he died: Babylon
Who was Hammurabi?
During ancient times, numerous empires were formed, many of which spanned the ages and whose histories we know in detail thanks to their influence on everything around us. One of the first to exist was the Babylonian Empire, its founder being King Hammurabi . Son of Sin-Muballit and belonging to the Amorite people, he was born in Babylon in 1810 BC and ascended to the throne in 1972 BC, after his father abdicated. Towards the end of his reign, due to his enormous desire to monopolize power, he had total control of Mesopotamia .
- Hammurabi Biography
- King of babylon
- What did Hammurabi do
- Main laws
- Importance of Hammurabi
Born in 1810 BC, Hammurabi was the son of the fifth king of Babylon , Sin-Muballit. Both came from the Amorite caste, made up of tribes that grouped themselves west of the Euphrates and the Syrian and Canaanite territory during the 3rd millennium BC.
His father was a monarch from 1812 BC to 1793 BC, and he had a sister named Iltani. His reign lasted little more than four decades, and during it the progress of Babylon and its Amorite lineage was fostered , making sure to obtain the lands to the south of Mesopotamia.
After the conquest of the south, he turned his attention to other latitudes, seizing, despite the allied resistance of the cities around the Tigris River , the rest of the Mesopotamian region . He died in 1750 BC, the year his term ended.
King of babylon
His reign began in 1792 BC in the midst of a complex geopolitical situation , since both the south and the delta of the Tigris River were controlled by other monarchs and towards the north King Shamshiadad I was in an expansionist campaign.
During the first years his government maintained a climate of peace, dedicating itself to improving the infrastructure , in particular the walls to strengthen the defense of the city and the temples to impose its vision of religiosity.
Shortly after, and due to his desire for control, Hammurabi expanded his power to the south using soldiers from the north, an issue that caused an uprising in the city of Eshnunna. Faced with this, the monarchy busied himself in suppressing the rebellion.
After this, the Babylonian army conquered the rest of the north, causing Hammurabi to dominate Mesopotamia in a few years , except for Aleppo and Qatna, Syrian cities that still maintained their autonomy.
A series of clay tablets dating from the reign of Hammurabi , as well as a compilation of his letters, which contained daily affairs of government, have been found in various excavations .
His mandate ended in 1750 BC, just over 40 years after assuming it, and was succeeded to the throne by his son Šamšu – iluna.
He died in 1750 BC, shortly after the end of his term . Control over Mesopotamia was maintained during his death, although after it a time of anarchy began in which several anonymous characters entered a contest for the throne. His son Šamšu – iluna assumes he took the reins of the empire during that year, being unable to maintain or exceed everything his father achieved.
What did Hammurabi do
Hammurabi was a great military strategist, as he managed to conquer the entirety of Mesopotamia in just a few years , effectively reducing his enemies.
Added to this, he is recognized for having created one of the first systems of written laws called the Code of Hammurabi , containing more than 80 laws written in stone.
In the religious aspect, he was emphatic in the construction of temples to submit the religious system to his will and introducing statues of his own figure to ensure the cult towards him after his death. In addition, he donated numerous offerings, sculptures, emblems and thrones in commemoration of different gods.
The king was very dedicated when it came to the legal area, and so he developed a compilation of laws called the Code of Hammurabi . This set of 282 laws written on twelve tablets, is embodied in cuneiform writing on a stela of dark stone shaped like a cylinder and 2.4 meters high.
In the upper area of the stone there is a relief that contains the image of the king receiving the laws by the god Marduk . Currently, and after having been looted and rediscovered, it lies in the Louvre Museum in Paris.
Of the more than two hundred laws contained in the Hammurabi code, the most notable are the following:
- The death penalty applies to those who have stolen or robbed and to those who have slandered their neighbor on the occasion of a murder
- In the event that a man does physical harm to another, he will receive the same action that he exercised
- In case a father has carnal contact with his daughter, he will be banished . Similarly, if a son steals or steals from his father, his hand will be cut off.
Importance of Hammurabi
Hammurabi is famous for being one of the most talented legislators who ever lived; An example of this is his compilation of jurisprudence , which was a model for later legislation and is a faithful reflection of the customs of Mesopotamia under his reign.
In addition, its code raised for the first time the possibility of presumption of innocence , ensuring that both accuser and accused can be allowed to present evidence of the facts.